International 100 Day Senate Report Part Two : LUSENET : TimeBomb 2000 (Y2000) : One Thread

Russia: Russia is the 30th largest U. S. trading partner and hosts 11,000 U. S. citizens. While it is neither the largest trading partner nor the biggest host of expatriate citizens, Russia is of major importance to the U. S. Russian economic and military stability are key concerns for the international community. The cost of fixing Russian's Y2K problems was projected to cost anywhere between $1.5 and $3 billion, which could equal 1.8% to 2.7% of Russian Gross Domestic Product. Finally, in July, Finance Minister Mikhail Kasyanov stated that $187 billion would allow Russia to fix its problems. He noted that the government would prioritize funds for defense and security. 9 In July 1999, Russia projected that government readiness was at about 35%, with the readiness of the energy sector somewhere around 50%.

Aside from government readiness, Russia faces major Y2K challenges in key infrastructure sectors including telecommunications, energy, banking, and government services. In June of 1999 it was projected that Russia was likely to experience a month of disruptions in financial markets, two months for utilities and healthcare, and up to three months of turmoil in transportation and telecommunications.

Disruptions in key sectors such as telecommunications could be a significant impediment to Russia's economic recovery, as well as its ability to confront Y2K situations as they arise. There is an inconsistency in the approach and implementation of Y2K fixes in Russian telecommunications. In some cases, money is clearly the problem. In other cases, concerns over national security have prompted carriers not to discuss or share readiness concerns and remediation plans. A major long distance carrier in Russia is reportedly opting to create "work arounds" for its seven gateway switches instead off replacing them.

In the new global economy, where organizations strive to be transparent and responsive to market changes, Y2K has provided an unexpected benefit. Y2K has enable many complex organizations to get control of their IT infrastructures and stream line core process and functions. Unfortunately, in many cases, "Russia will only get yet another set of "workarounds" that prolong the life of already obsolete systems. On the surface the result will be the same no particularly huge catastrophesS but the Western method may create more wealth S while the Russian method may diminish it." 10

On September 13, DOD and the Russian Ministry of Defense (MOD) signed an agreement for the U. S. and the Russian Federation indicating their intent to establish the Center for Year 2000 Strategic Stability (CY2KSS) during the Year 2000 transition period. Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen and Russian Federation Minister of Defense Igor Sergeyev formally signed the statement in Moscow today.

In the CY2KSS, U. S. and Russian military personnel will sit sidebyside during the Y2K transition period, from late December 1999 to midJanuary 2000, and continuously monitor U. S.provided information on missile and space launches. These people will be in voice contact with command centers in the U. S. and Russia via a highly reliable, Y2Ktested communications link.

In addition to missile and space launches, the center will serve as a means to communicate about other defenserelated events that could be potentially destabilizing, such as an aircraft going off course due to a Y2K failure of a navigation or communication system.

The CY2KSS complements the extensive steps taken by both the U. S. and Russia to ensure the Y2K reliability of their warning systems, nuclear weapons, and command and control capabilities. Both countries agree that the likelihood of Y2K failure in these systems is extremely remote and that sufficient safeguards are in place to handle these situations. However, given the potentially severe consequences, the establishment of the center is a worthwhile investment.

Discussions on the CY2KSS began in February 1999. Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado, was chosen as the center's site because of its accessibility to U. S. information and the desire to use the facility after the Y2K transition to train U. S. personnel for duty in a permanent Joint Warning Center to be established in Moscow. The total cost of the establishment and operation of the CY2KSS is approximately $8 million. The center is currently on schedule to be completed on Dec. 1, 1999. The CY2KSS is one component of a comprehensive DODrelated Y2K cooperation program that began to take shape in February 1999. In addition to establishing the CY2KSS, the U. S. and Russia have four other efforts:

exchanging Y2K experiences to help each other manage the Y2K problem and to understand each other's management plans and progress;

ensuring the direct communication links between our national leaders remain reliable; maintaining the security of the Russian nuclear weapons stockpile;

exchanging Y2K experiences related to nuclear forces to maintain reliable nuclear command and control.

Defense issues are only one part of the equation. Oblasts, krays, republics, and okrugs comprise the 88 administrative regions of the Russian Federation. Each region has its own unique set of Y2K problems. The rhetoric about individual responsibility for addressing the Y2K problem has been plentiful, but funds have been scarce.

Successful information exchanges continue to take place between DOE and the Russian Federation. In October 1998, DOE held its first Y2K workshop in Moscow. In January 1999, DOE published Y2K guidance with the International Energy Agency (IEA). DOE also held a workshop for transmissions and distribution systems in February. In spring of 1999, DOE collaborated with the International Science and Technology Center in Moscow and funded 11 Y2K projects, the majority of which were nuclearspecific. On September 9, a delegation of Russian and Ukrainian experts came to the U. S. to observe the NERC electric power drill. Further, the IEA is planning a contingency conference in Prague in October.

Nuclear power plants have been a serious concern for Russia. Russia has 29 nuclear power reactor units in operation at nine sites, producing a total of approximately 21,000 MW per year. In 1997, the nuclear power plants in Russia produced 14% of the electricity; in the far Western parts of Russia, the share was 24.9%. The Leningrad (Sosnovyy Bor), Kola, and Smolensk nuclear plants supply half of northwest Russia's electricity requirements. In addition to nuclear power, Russia generates about 70% of its electricity at thermal power stations (coal, gas, and oil) and about 18% at hydroelectric stations.

Westernstyle plants employ the design principle of safety in depth, relying on a series of physical barriers including a massive reinforced concrete structure called the containment to prevent the release of radioactive material to the environment. With the exception of some VVER designs, Soviet designed reactors do not have such a containment structure. Soviet designed reactors are essentially variations on two basic designs: the VVER or pressurized light water type, and the RBMK the graphite moderated, channel reactor. Three generations of Soviet designed VVER reactor supgraded over time are operating in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. 11 RBMK reactors are more commonly known as the Chernobyl style plant. About 97 percent of Russia's nuclear generating capacity comes from reactors built to the RBMK and VVER designs. 12

According to DOE, U. S.Russian collaboration has helped improve safety in the Sovietera plants and reduced the number of operational events from 128 in 1994, to 95 in 1995. Of the 1995 incidents, 57 occurred at VVER units and 38 at RBMK and other units. Unplanned disconnections from the grid were greater at VVER units than at other units. 13

Russia and DOE have found no Y2K issues in primary plant safety systems. Primary plant safety systems monitor specific plant parameters (temperature, pressure, level, flow, reactor power) and provide automatic control and protection actions for plant safety. Primary plant systems can be thought of as the front line defense against accidents. There are also systems that are important to safety and have an indirect impact on plant operations. These are systems used to monitor (not control) plant functions such as steam generator level, synchronize plant clock. The most critical piece of equipment which will face Y2K challenges is the plant process computer and its related information display and data archiving systems. If these fail or experience problems, they will not cause an accident. However, the malfunction of these systems would complicate operations and increase the opportunity of operator error. The combination of human error and computer error is a challenge not just for the Russians but the entire world.

Ukraine: Ukraine faces many challenges in addressing Y2K; it has been difficult for this emerging nation to focus and fund its Y2K efforts. The good news is that Ukraine has enjoyed strong support from it senior leadership including the President. Unfortunately, the Ukraine lacks the resources of the Russian government in addressing its problems.

Ukraine faces many of the same challenges that Russia does and coordination between the two nations will be key.

The Ukraine relies on nuclear power for 46% of it electric power and must address the same nuclear power plant challenges as Russia. The U. K. reports that loss of power output is possible and could cause significant disruption to the electricity grid. Russian natural gas and oil pipelines could be compromised by such breakdowns in electric power. Electric power distribution managers in Ukraine have been working closely with the U. S. to develop contingency plans and prepare for possible disruptions.


International Monitoring estimated on July 2 that the ASEAN countriesP which include Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and VietnamP would suffer Y2Krelated delays and damages totaling more than $90 billion combined. 14

China: China has economic importance to the U. S. China is the 4 th leading exporter and the 12 th leading importer to the U. S. The U. S. has over $5 billion in investment in China. Because of improper planning, insufficient resources, and a very late start in addressing the Y2K problem, the Committee believes that a substantial portion of Chinese companies and the government will experience several failures in their computers. China's relatively low dependence on computers, particularly in the rural areas in many provinces, is in this case a benefit from a Y2K standpoint. However, it is technology dependent in its major cities and highly commercial provinces. Experts predict serious infrastructure failures in these areas.

Of particular concern to the Committee is that many of China's electric power plants are Y2K vulnerable and there is little evidence that China is remediating systems. Plants are difficult to run manually and blackouts could result. Electric power outages could impact other sector services such as telecommunications, and oil and gas.

Exacerbating China's Y2K problems is the fact that 80% to 95% of its software is thought to be pirated. This could prevent Chinese companies from receiving technical support from suppliers. Despite this assertion, some believe that cashstrapped Chinese companies may elect to sue American suppliers for failures and losses instead of concentrating on remediation. If true, this is very troubling to the Committee.

Japan: Next to the United States, Japan has the greater dependence on technology than any other country of the world. It is for this reason, Japan's late start in addressing the Y2K problem, and its importance as a trading partner to the U. S., that the Committee remains concerned about Japan's Y2K preparedness.

While Japan has made tremendous strides over the past six months to catch up, the amount of Y2K work it has to do puts it well behind the U. S. in addressing the Y2K problem. It did not prepare a national action plan until September 11, 1998P nearly one year behind most other highly industrialized nations. Since that time, it has been mirroring the U. S. and Great Britain in its approach to the problem.

According to Japan's self reported information as of July 1999:

7 about 72% of the financial sector (banks, insurance, and securities) have completed testing of their systems.

7 98% of the electric and oil sectors had completed testing of their systems.

7 91% of the critical control systems in the oil industry had completed testing.

7 69% of the telecommunications networks had competed testing.

7 97% of their critical aviation systems had been tested.

Of most concern is the healthcare sector, and small and medium sized enterprises. The later could have a significant impact on Japanese enterprises, and thus U. S. enterprises. The heart of the Committee's concern is that with just 100 days to go before the date rollover, simply has too much to do. Its catch up status makes it prone to errors during remediation, and thus more exposed to undetected Y2K problems.

The Philippines: The Y2K Commission has a mandate to closely monitor the nation's Y2K compliance. As part of that mandate, it conducts a regular monthly survey of firms and organizations in missioncritical sectors. The most recent survey, from August 1999, showed the following rates of overall compliance: telecommunications and utilities and at 77%; transportation at 76%; finance at 93%; healthcare at 69%; manufacturing at 71%; and government services at 75%.

The government has set a September 30 deadline for all firms and government agencies to become Y2K ready. By that time, the government plans to release a list of thousands of companies and agencies that have failed to document their Y2K readiness. So far, fewer than 1,000 of 18,000 companies required to be Y2K compliant have disclosed their level of Y2K readiness. In October the Commission will conduct a validation of compliance reports submitted by companies and government agencies to determine their veracity.

Thailand: In April 1998, the Thai cabinet appointed a National Y2K Coordination Committee and a national plan was set up to solve the Y2K problem in four "supercritical organizations"P power and energy; financial, banking, and insurance; telecommunications and transportation; and social order. The status of these sectors as of July 26 was as follows:

7 All entities in the power and energy sector were reported to be 100% compliant;

7 Most entities in the finance, banking, and insurance sector were 100% compliant except the Revenue Department (88%), the Department of Insurance (42%), and the Government Lottery Office (55%);

7 Almost all entities in the telecommunications and transportation sector were 100% compliant except the Meteorological Department (67%) and the Ministry of Transport and Communications (86%); and

7 As far as the social order sector, the Ministry of Defense is 80% compliant and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration is 68% compliant.

On August 14, the Deputy Prime Minister told the Thai cabinet that 65% of the 231 government agencies that use computers in their main tasks have reported they had fixed them. These included most of the government agencies that were a top priority. However, the Deputy Prime Minister also said the remaining 35% had made little progress. The overall situation in the country was still considered "worrying." 15

Vietnam: Vietnam has established a Y2K Steering Committee and issued the following August 22, 1999 report. Eighty percent of central organizations; 59% of provinces and cities; and 86% of corporations had undertaken corrective measures.

However, more than 50% of smalland mediumsized enterprises are not aware of Y2K at an adequate level and have not taken necessary actions.

As of August 25, 94.73% of central and local organizations and enterprises had made an inventory and assessment of the impact of Y2K, with the following results:

7 Of the 108,147 computers checked, 50,146 were not Y2K compliant. That amounts to 46% of the total PCs in public administration and state enterprises. Of these, .85% are used for very important applications, and 25.35% are used for important applications.

7 About 70% of systems software was not compliant, of which 50% could be repaired by upgraded software. The malfunctioning of 1% of this software would have a very serious impact, and the malfunctioning of 35% would have a serious impact.

7 About 90% of applications software was not Y2K compliant or its status was unknown. The malfunctioning of 76% of this software would have a very serious impact (mainly applications in financial, banking, postal, and airlines functions) and the malfunctioning of 8% would have a serious impact.

7 Of 8,394 pieces of equipment with embedded chips checked, 4,183 were not compliantP 49.83%. The malfunctioning of 1% of these chips would have a very serious impact, and the serious impact, and the malfunctioning of 71% of these chips would have a serious impact. However, embedded systems have not been completely checked and assessed.

The progress of the financial branch is slower than others and Vietnam reports that, in the next months, special measures should be taken to overcome the problems in time. The electricity and health branches have many difficulties in addressing the problem for automated control equipment and specified health equipment with respect to embedded chips. Other nonkey ministries, organizations equivalent to a ministry, provinces, and cities are making very slow progress. Vietnam reports that if there are no special measures, the problem will not be solved in time and there will be a considerable impact on state management, business, and production activities.

Korea: The Prime Minister's office established a Year 2000 Conversion Council in April 1998 to check the progress, in each area, to detect problems, and to discuss aids. The Ministry of Information and Communication established The Year 2000 Task Force and has acted to oversee mission critical sectors. The Task Force implemented the government's Y2K Action Plan.

The status report by the end of July 1999 was as follows:

Banking and Finance 99.9% Electricity and Energy 99.8%

Nuclear Power Plants 100% Transportation 99.8%

Industrial activities 98.6% Defense 97.7%

Telecommunications 97.3% Water Resources 97.8%

Central and Local Government 96.7% Health 95.9%

Environment 100% Shipping/ Ports 100%

Small and Medium Business 90.2%

The central and local government, and the small and medium business sectors, are behind Korea's established schedules.

During 1998, 4.37 billion won was used as the Y2K budget, and 17.38 billion won is allocated for 1999.

In 1999 the government is providing field inspections for 10,000 SMBs and experts and funds for 2,000 SMBs. The progress of 500 selected SMBs is monitored monthly. In addition, SMBs are fixing the Y2K problem in conjunction with large companies. 61 large cooperative groups are expected to help their affiliate SMBs Y2K readiness by September.

Latin America

Dramatic progress has been made in recent months in Latin America, which includes, for purposes of this report, the countries of Mexico, Central America, and South America. Early attention on the large emerging market of Brazil has translated into substantial progress over the past year. However, many countries in the region continue to play "catchup". According to the International Y2K Center, of the ten participating South America countries, only Chile reported that they had sectors Y2Kready before June 1999. Only Brazil shows evidence of awareness at the state/ provincial level. On a regional level, the Organization of American States (OAS) has a working group on Y2K, which sponsors a South American forum on Y2K to assist countries who are late to the issue 16 .

Many Central American countries are still struggling with the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch, which destroyed a great deal of critical infrastructure. In this context, Y2K remediation has been a lower priority. Awareness is generally high for banking and financial services as well as at major air transportation facilities. Nonetheless, Y2K does have the potential to push vulnerable sectors, such as drinking water, public services, and public health care, from bad to worse. Unfortunately, the lack of publicly available information for many countries in the region makes assessment difficult. In general, this region is characterized by low dependency on technology, but low Y2K progress.

Of note is the readiness of the Panama Canal, which reverts to Panamanian control on December 31, 1999. To avoid potential accidents, officials of the Panama Canal will require all ships to demonstrate Y2K compliance before entering the canal.

Mexico: Mexico economically dominates, and is believed to be among the best prepared countries in Latin America. According to Global 2000, Mexico received as good an overall rating, if not better, than the U. S.

Efforts in Mexico are led by the Year 2000 National Conversion Commission of Mexico, which includes representatives of private and public institutions. Strategic sector working groups are headed by specific industry leaders and/ or public agencies. Overall assessments of Y2K readiness have been divided into finance, public sector, and private sector (nonfinancial). As of the May 1999 survey, the status of remediation is as follows:

Financial industry 99%

Government services 95%

Large companies 97%

Medium sized companies 80%

Small companies 53%

According to the August report, "Upon comparison of the three surveys, it can be observed that, of the total of 145,000 establishments identified by the third survey as having outofdate equipment connected to a network, there has been a nearly 100% increase in the level of awareness building and the involvement of top management, irrespective of the size of the establishments."

Argentina: The International Y2K Center reports that all sectors will reach compliance between August and November 1999, with the financial sector leading the pack. The health sector lags, not expecting full implementation until November 1999. Of greatest concern, however, is the air transportation sector, which is highly dependent upon technology and is not expecting implementation until September 1999.

For the dozen largest gas utilities in Argentina, as of August 26, 1999, progress in implementing Y2K programs was 82%92%. 17 The electric power industry is similarly advanced, with 82% of the generation, 86% of the transmission, and 78.5% of the distribution systems' Y2K implementation plans completed. 18

Brazil: As the world's eighth largest economy, Brazil's exposure to Y2K risk could trigger economic problems outside of the region. Brazil is highly dependent upon telecommunications, electric power grids, air traffic control, banking and finance. Disruptions among Brazil's 4.5 million smallto mediumsized enterprises, which constitute over 50% of the labor force, could be severe given the lack of awareness and Y2K planning in these organizations.

Air Traffic Control: Brazil's national airline began its Y2K program in 1996, and the aircraft manufacturer Embraer has reportedly completed work on missioncritical systems. According to the International Aviation Transportation Association, $2.3 billion has been invested in remediating and modernizing air traffic control systems in Brazil.

Banks and finance: The Brazilian Federation of Bank Associations announced May 3, 1999 that a test conducted for more than 80% of the financial transactions was successful. The Central Bank of Brazil states that it will close unprepared banks and had set December 31, 1998 as the date for completing remediation of systems, a deadline that Banco Cidade apparently made.

Telecommunications: Incomplete information about smaller providers is balanced by generally positive trends from industrywide testing and leadership by major telecom firms. Industrywide testing occurred July 31, 1999. The Gartner group expects limited and sporadic telephone outages in Brazil.

Electrical Power and Gas: The National Electric Power Agency had directed all 78 power distributors to be Y2Kready by 30 June 1999. For gas, Staterun Petrobas is stockpiling crude oil and refined products for year end shortages. According to Brazil's Y2K Coordinator, Marcos Osorio, the energy sector is running behind, but he expects only isolated problems 19 .

Chile: According to Global 2000, Chile achieved readiness in the financial sector early in 1999, but several sectors require additional implementation or public information. As of August 16, 1999, Chile 20 is estimating 75% readiness across all sectors, up from 48% in December 1998. More specific findings are as follows:

7 Banking 92%

7 Electricity 68%

7 Telecommunications 88%

7 Transportation 76%

7 Central Government 62%

The report notes that the readiness percentage is distinct from the probability of failure.

Chile expects to spend about $1.5 billion (including private sector), or roughly 2 percent of GDP. Air transportation was expected to be ready by the end of August 1999, and customs officials have been requiring Y2K compliant equipment since 1997.

Peru: According to Global 2000, as of June 15, 1999, Peru is, across many sectors, either not Y2K ready, or that public information is inadequate. Customs officials are expecting to finish remediation of systems by November 1, 1999, however, some glitches are expected.

The public health system is vulnerable due to a lack of resources to replace or fix noncompliant medical equipment. The Gartner Group and the World Bank offer contradictory information, ranking Peru as one of the better prepared in South America.

Venezuela: Recent political problems have highlighted the inherent social and economic instability, and distracted efforts away from Y2K. Venezuela is a major oil exporter to the U. S., and oil exports account for 78% of Venezuela's export trade. Outside of the water transportation systems and ports, the major vulnerability for Venezuela is the electric power industry, which can be expected to experience some failures.

Electricidad de Caracus (EDC), Venezuela's largest private utility, has invested $7 million on Y2K, but in general, Y2K readiness information from Venezuela is minimal.

Ecuador: 4 5% of the gross domestic product of Ecuador, or about $143 million, is expected to be spent on Y2K fixes. Half of Ecuador's phone lines may not work unless contingency plans are put in place to deal with computer glitches, according to a spokesperson for governmentowned Pacifitel. This situation has earned Ecuador a red on the Global 2000 chart for telecommunications. The energy sector also received a red for its lack of readiness or publicly available information, and no sector received a green "light". A study conducted in April 1999 by IBM of 54 Ecuadorian public institutions found that 45% have hardware problems and 40% have software problems.


The third conference of the Commission for Eastern African Cooperation, involving the heads of the Y2K programs of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda on September 7, 1999 identified critical crossborder issues requiring additional cooperation:

7 Energy, notably electricity and petrochemicals;

7 Communications, especially telephones and data transmission;

7 Finance, notably banks and other financial institutions; and,

7 Transport, such as civil aviation and maritime services.

Uganda: Uganda has set up a National Y2K Task Force to assess the most critical socioeconomic sectors of Uganda. A July position statement noted that more top management involvement in Y2K activities in various organizations and a general trend of accelerated progress. That report highlighted the Red status of the Uganda National Examination Board in the government's critical computer services sector. The government is seriously concerned that at the rate the Board is progressing, it may not solve its problem in time to avoid serious disruptions to Uganda's educational cycle. Other sectors are yellow.

The status of the nation's most critical organizations is expected to be generally complete by September 9, 1999.

Rwanda: Rwanda's National Steering committee of 14 members from the public and private sectors was set up in January 1999. It operates under the auspices of the Ministry of Transportation and is chaired by the Minister. The most recent status shows:

Civil aviation: inventory and assessment showed the airport had the highest risks in the country, but negotiations were underway to install new equipment and systems.

Telecommunications: Y2K problems were observed in telex, communications equipment, and the billing system. Plans are to install new equipment and a new billing system, and to phase out telex.

Electricity: The highest risks are posed by the cash power billing system. Systems are being replaced.

Caisse Sociale: The risks are very high. By October they will have an upgraded compliant system.

Kenya: The Kenyan government established a National Year 2000 Steering Committee and a National Year 2000 Coordination Centre to coordinate national compliance efforts. The President has stated, "All of us are Y2K StakeholdersP Doing nothing is not an option."

Most essential public utilities were to be Y2K compliant by June. A March survey showed that commercial banks were 90% compliant, nonbank financial institutions were 92% compliant, and mortgage companies were 100% compliant.


The Committee is greatly concerned about the international Y2K picture. Several important U. S. trading partners are severely behind in addressing the Y2K problem. This leads the Committee to conclude that many shortterm, and in some cases longterm, disruptions to supply chains are likely to occur. If this proves to be true, such disruptions may cause a low to moderate downturn in the U. S. economy, particularly in industries that depend on foreign suppliers. However, the technology and business interconnections and interrelationships are difficult to map. This makes it impossible for the Committee or anyone else to predict which industries will be affected, and how much impact these affected industries will have on the economy.

In addition, there may be a request for humanitarian relief from developing countries that have not addressed the Y2K problem. The U. S. government should be establishing what are policy should be in responding to these requests should they arise.


The Committee remains extremely concerned about the impact Y2K will have on the U. S. economy and our strategic interests. Several countries of strategic and economic importance to the U. S. are severely behind in their Y2K remediation efforts.

The regions of most concern to the Committee are Eastern Europe, Africa, and parts of Asia and South America. When considering strategic and economic factors, and the status of Y2K remediation efforts, the specific countries of most concern to the Committee are China, Russia, Italy, and several of the countries from which the U. S. imports oil.

1 "The Year 2000 Problem and the Global Trading System," U. S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, April 1999, p. 1, at http:// y2k. ita. doc. gov/ y2k.

2 Id. at 1213.

3 "The 'Millennium Bug': The Preparedness of Key EU Infrastructures for the Y2000 Date Change," European Commission, COM( 1999) 275.

4 See http:// www. intlmonitoring. com/ expatris. htm.

5 See at www. abs. gov. au.

6 See at http:// www. comitatoanno2000. it/ pres1. htm.

7 See www. belgacom. be.

8 See www. millennium. ch/

9 " Y2K Bug Threatens Russian Computers" Alan S. Cullison, The Wall Street Journal July 13, 1999

10 " The Russian Federation' s Y2K Policy: Too Little, Too Late?" by W. McHenry and L. Malkov Communications of AIS Volume 2, Article 10 8 "The Russian Federation's Y2K Policy: Too Little, Too Late?" 11 The first generationthe VVER440 Model V230operates at four plant sites in three countries: Russia, Bulgaria and the Slovak Republic. The second generationthe VVER440 Model V213operates at five plant sites in five countries: Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. The third generationP the VVER 1000operates at eight plant sites in three countries: Russia, Ukraine and Bulgaria.

12 http:// insp. pnl. gov: 2080/? profiles/ russia/# cprofile


14 See www. intlmonitoring. com/ aseandan. htm

15 See www. currents. net/ newstoday

16 http:// www. oas. org/ y2k/

17 National Telecommunications Commission of Argentina, enargas. gov. ar

18 (Argentine Electrical Industry) Compania Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Electrico SA  CAMMESA. Cammesa. com. ar

19 "Bogota: Bermuda Insists", Associated Press, April 18, 1999.

20 Interministerial 2000 Action Committee of Chile (Comite Interministerial Accion Chile 2000), www. a2000. cl

-- Brian (, September 23, 1999


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