## FX Topicsgreenspun.com : LUSENET : UR General Chemistry : One Thread |

Some students have asked me for a list of topics to study for the final. That question has to be answered by each student for themselves. I can only reiterate that the FX is cumulative and covers all topics of the course. According to the general pedagocical principles followed, we have worked some topics extensively, while others were left to a more cursory study. However, the following is a list of important concepts you have learned about in this course. We have worked a lot, and so the list is long. It is an impressive body of knowledge you have acquired, although I wouldn't say that you now know too much. Go through the various items, preferrably together with some of your friends. Recall what you know about the concepts, bounce your ideas off your friends, remember the questions we asked and answered in class and in the homeworks, and the associated drill problems, as well as the previous exams. They are typical of what you are expected to know. Mark where you have the greatest difficulties. Read about those difficult items first, in the book(s) and in the various course notes. Then prepare questions to ask your TA in the prep sessions or individual appointments, if they are still possible to obtain. This would also be a good purpose for the BB, more in line with expectations.There will also be a few simple questions about lab problems and procedures which you all should be familiar with.

While going through the individual topics, prepare your new "cheat sheet".

Look at the Chm 104 Announcement Web page the day before the exam for administrative issues.

Here is the list of FX topics. I hope, this will help you focus. Good luck everyone!

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY II

I. Introduction to Thermodynamics

I.1. Energy, Work, and Heat

Relation between force and potential, degrees of freedom of motion. The Lennard-Jones potential illustrating energetics of molecular binding, bound states in the potential well and binding energies. Transitions between reactant and product states and the emission/absorption of heat. The First Law of Thermodynamics, internal energy, heat content (enthalpy), specific heat, heat capacity, compression/expansion work. The equipartition law.

I.2. Thermochemistry and Calorimetry

Energy diagrams for chemical reactions, standard states, heat (enthalpy) of formation and combustion, enthalpy of reaction, endothermic and exothermic reactions, manipulating thermochemical equations. Hess' Law as an example of the path independence of changes in state functions. Selecting intelligent routes A --> B.

I.3. Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases

Ideal-gas Equation of State, internal energy and temperature Isothermal, isobaric, isentropic (adiabatic) processes Heat and work in expansion and compression of an ideal gas, temperature changes, Circular processes, entropy and heat, reversible and irreversible heat transfer Energy, enthalpy, and heat capacities

I.4. Entropy and the Second Law

The second Law of Thermodynamics Standard entropy, entropy and structural order of materials, Third Law of Thermodyn. Entropies of fusion, vaporization, reaction Heat convection as an example of entropy production in an irreversible process Spontaneous processes (evolution towards equilibrium) and entropy changes Energy equilibration, mixing Microstates of minimum and maximum entropy, number/density of states S = k(ln ?

I.5. Free Energy

Entropy changes of a system in contact with a heat bath. Gibbs Free Energy, spontaneous processes, and equilibrium. Free energy and work Free energy changes in reactions and phase transitions

I.6. Free Energy in Chemical Reactions

Equilibrium between free energies of reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Standard free energy, pressure (concentration) and temperature dependence of G. The equilibrium constant and its relation to the free energy of reaction. Solubility product.

II. Electrochemistry

Cell potential, electrical work, and free energy Standard reduction potentials, half-cell reactions. The Nernst equation. Galvanic cells.

III. Chemical Kinetics

III.1. Rate Laws

Rate/speed of a reaction, equivalent definitions for stoichiometric equations Order of a reaction, overall or with respect to a certain substance. Interpretation of initial rates or time-dependent data. Half life and mean life. Radioactive dating of organic substances.

III.2. Reaction Mechanisms

Unimolecular, bimolecular, termolecular reactions, estimates of likelihood. Collision theory of molecular reactions Collision rate, collision diameter/cross section, frequency factor Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution of gas molecules. Transition state reactions, energetics for forward and reverse reactions, activated complex, activation energy Arrhenius Law, activation energy, pre-exponential factor A. Microstates of minimum and maximum entropy, number/density of states

IV. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

IV.1. Failure of Classical Physics

Thermal blackbody radiation, molar heat capacity of solids, photoelectric effect. Electron diffraction.

IV.2. Matter Waves: Quantization of Bound Systems

Characteristic properties of a wave (amplitude, frequency, wavelength, period, (phase-) velocity. Constructive and destructive interference of waves. DeBroglie wave of a massless (photon) and massive particles. Bohr's hydrogen atom explains discrete energy spectrum, energy spectrum of hydrogen for emission and absorption Bohr's and deBroglie's quantization conditions Standing waves, the particle in a one-dimensional box and applications. Tunnel effect Heisenberg's uncertainty relation.

IV.3. The Schrvdinger Equation

How to extract information from the wave function, kinetic-energy operator The Schrvdinger equation for bound/stationary states Example of a one-dimensional box Multiple dimensions

IV.4. Electrons in Atoms

The hydrogen atom, wave functions in polar coordinates Principal, azimuth, and magnetic quantum numbers Quantum numbers and state degeneracies of hydrogen orbitals. Radial and angular wave functions, nodes and symmetries Wave function and probability, radial probability distributions Completeness of wave functions (e.g., the p intensities add up to unity) Pauli exclusion principle. Aufbau principle for multi-electronic atoms. Effect of electronic interactions on binding energy. Variations in atomic radius and first ionization energy. Valence electrons and the periodicity of chemical elements.

V. Molecular Bonding and Orbitals

Characteristics of the potential energy of two atoms as a function of internuclear distance. The effects of electrons in covalent and ionic bonding. Electronegativity, bond type, and electric dipole moment. Changes across period and group. Bond energy and enthalpy, bonds broken and formed. Closed-shell and valence electrons, simple Lewis structures Duet rule for hydrogen, octet rule for second-row non-metal elements. Bonding and antibonding orbitals, bond order Homonuclear diatomic molecules.

-- Anonymous, April 30, 2000

All i have to say is WOWOWOWOWWO, i didn't know we did all this information in class......

-- Anonymous, May 02, 2000

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