KI (Potassium iodide or iodate)greenspun.com : LUSENET : TimeBomb 2000 (Y2000) Preparation Forum : One Thread
(Cross posted from Rick Cowles "Electric Utilities" forum (slightly modified and references added.)
I get the impression that KI (potassium iodide or iodate) is seen by some to be a shield against damage from radioactive nuclides. If so this is a dangerous illusion.
KI does one thing only. It satisfies the thyroid gland's demand for iodine. Once that demand is met, uptake of radioactive I-131 (a product of nuclear fission) is minimized, greatly reducing the risk of thyroid dysfunction.
Other than that, KI has no effect whatsoever on cell damage from ionizing radiation in general. Fission products emit gamma radiation (with incidental X-ray radiation produced when gamma radiation encounters metal), as well as beta and alpha particles, whose primary risk is internal after ingesting contaminated food or breathing radioactive dust.
The Health Costs of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation
The health effects of radiation. This is a transcript of an interview with John William Gofman in 1994. At that time Gofman was professor emeritus of Medical Physics at UC Berkeley, and lecturer for the Department of Medicine, UCSF.
Basics about radiation.
How radiation affects cells.
Chernobyl and the Collapse of Soviet Society. By Jay M. Gould (1993).
Chernobyl. Links to several on-line articles.
-- Tom Carey (email@example.com), July 10, 1999
"The health effects of Radiation" was a real eye-opener. Tom, I don't know whether to kiss you or punch you!! :) Seriously, I should really be praying a lot more.
-- NSmith (firstname.lastname@example.org), July 10, 1999.
None of this material is light summer reading, for sure. But the U.S.A. has gotten off relatively lightly, compared to the countries of the (former) Soviet Union.
(Hope you don't settle for the "punch" option...!)
-- Tom Carey (email@example.com), July 10, 1999.
Potassium Iodate tablets can be purchased from Out N Back (1-800-533- 7415).
100 tablets, 150 mg. each. $14.50 per bottle.
-- walt (firstname.lastname@example.org), July 10, 1999.
melatonin can be used to prevent free radical damage from radiation. it's used for that purpose now.
-- jocelyne slough (email@example.com), July 10, 1999.
Posting such ludicrous garbage as the above 6 links (#3 & 4 were honest though) in 1999 is irresponsible scientifically illiterate fear-mongering and out and out lying. You should be ashamed of yourself. Repeating ancient idiocies that have been thoroughly discredited over a decade ago as if they had a shred of truth in them what so ever is junk science or worse.
Your links #1,2,5,6 are to radiation what the Flat Earth Society and the book The Hollow Earth are to geography and geology.
Devining the entrails of a slaughtered goat to determine whether a PLC is Y2K compliant represents the same level science as those 4 links.
Why do you continue to repeat falsehoods?
-- Ken Seger (firstname.lastname@example.org), July 12, 1999.
"Why do you continue to repeat falsehoods?"
That's an easy one to answer. I've seen nothing that demonstrates that these are in fact "falsehoods." I've seen lengthy and unsupported assertions to that effect, but that's not quite the same thing.
From your post I take it that you are convinced that ionizing radiation does not have the harmful physiological effects described in these references. I don't share that belief, but you're certainly welcome to it.
Why should you object to others holding the contrary opinion (as I do, based on those and other documents)?
For others reading this, I recommend Carole Gallagher's very thorough and quite disturbing book, American Ground Zero; The Secret Nuclear War, documenting the effects of "low-level radiation" on human and animal populations in the areas downwind from the Nevada Test Site. Originally published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press in 1993, this book is now o.p., but a search at Advanced Book Exchange returned 26 different sources for used copies, some with more than one available, at prices ranging from $10.00 to $50.00.
-- Tom Carey (email@example.com), July 13, 1999.
Are high and medium level exposures to ionizing radiation harmfull? Yes. Low level? No. The hysteria about low level radiation rests on the unproven hypothesis of Linus Pauling and is called the linear no threshold hypothesis, or LNTH. Is assumes a linear relationship between radiation dosage and biological effects. Since high amounts of radiation have harmful effects, reducing the dose only reduces the severity of the effects. If this nosense were applied to chemicals we would have to ban the following items from vitamin pills; Vit. A, vit. D, iron, selenium, copper, etc.
I mentioned two books and one CD-ROM in http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=000wFy they are not cheap, sorry. If you purchase those you will have hundreds of citations to hundreds of technical articles on the subject.
Most recent would be; Nuclear Issues Vol. 21 #5 May 1999 about the American Nuclear society issuing a position statement "there is insufficient scientific evidence to support use of the Linear No Threshold Hypothesis (LNTH) in the projection of the health effects of low-level radiation on which regulation of low levels of radiation adopted by international and national radiation protection athorities is based." Also a recent statement by the United States National Council on Radiation Protection. Also that massive study of all of the counties in the USA that analyized radon versus cancer and over 100 other factors came to the conclusion that counties with the greatest amounts of radon had the lowest cancer rates.
Add these to the hundreds of other studies mentioned in the two books and no rational person that bothers to study the data can come to any conclusion other than that LNTH is totally bogus.
"Why should you object to others holding the contrary opinion (as I do, based on those and other documents)?" Because ignorance kills people. We are spending Billions of dollars based on the low-level radiation LNTH that either has no benificial health effects or in many cases has detrimental health effects. I value human life. Forcing people to spend money on harmful or worthless items prevents them from spending money on items and services that can save their lives. It would be like legislating that all HMO and insurance companies must purchase large polished quartz crystals for all of their covered people because some New Age type believes that polished quartz crystals "channel" psychic energy. Actually that wouldn't be as bad because it would cost less and be a one time expense! Change that to new quartz crystals at least one pound in size every week.
-- Ken Seger (firstname.lastname@example.org), July 13, 1999.
Ken -- I've reviewed the thread you referred to: http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch- msg.tcl?msg_id=000vds, (in which a post of mine is also found.)
Nothing in what I've said defends the use of fossil fuels, coal or oil. The fact that we have made ourselves dependent on both fossil fuels and nuclear power is something we're living with. Other avenues of power generation are available, but at this point any substantive transition away from the present arrangement would be incredibly disruptive. And no mode of power generation can avoid inevitable problems with the terrestrial heat budget.
As you and others note, coal mining is a hazardous trade, and coal burning also emits toxins. I understand coal-fired power plants nowadays have fly ash precipitators, which must be reducing the particulate pollution level considerably. And present-day coal mining methods don't require so many men down in the hole. Yet coal remains a heavy source of pollution.
My own POV is based on an experience I had while employed at the Nevada Proving Ground during the Teapot series of tests in 1955. We were allowed to watch each shot from the Control Point. Purchase of a pair of density goggles was mandatory. We were given the option of using the goggles to observe the shot from its onset, or facing away from the shot, waiting for the initial flash, then turning around to view it without goggles. For a daytime airdrop of a low yield device, I opted for the second alternative. It seems I turned around a bit too soon, as I was able to see the fission event before the incandescent fireball had formed to screen it.
At the time I had no particular views on nuclear weapons, other than the hope they wouldn't be dropped where I lived. What I saw in that 'event' was nothing I'd expected. I saw a bizarre 'inward-turning', which I can only describe as a moiling in directions other than those we know. It gave the impression of a mouth.
I instantly understood that this occurrence was utterly out of place; that it had a place, but that place was not anywhere near our neighborhood. In a very short time, of course, the fireball formed and hid that thing from sight.
I saw nothing similar in other tower shots of that series, with yields ranging up to 43 Kt. So I assume it was the specific design of that first one which delayed the formation of the fireball (it may have developed asymmetrically).
That's pretty much where I'm coming from on this. I understand how outre it must sound to others.
You speak of junk science. In my view, research work is more persuasive when it's conducted without the support of massive financial grants from parties whose existence depends on persuading the world that nuclear power is safe, by persons whose careers depend on uninterrupted funding from those same parties.
-- Tom Carey (email@example.com), July 13, 1999.
"150 mg Tablets
"Potassium Iodate is a superior form of KI (buffered Iodine) and carried only by Medical Corps. Each factory sealed bottle contains 100 fresh tablets of Potassium Iodate 150mg.
"The shelf life of Potassium Iodate is exceptional and should last a generation. Because of the extra molecule of oxygen in Iodate, Medical Corps can guarantee Iodate's stability without adding stabilizers.
"Medical Corps recommends that each family member should have at least one bottle in their emergency kit. KI is the only known chemical available on the market which will shield (or block) the Thyroid and prevent it from absorbinb radioactive Iodine.
"Unlike other blockers, Medical Corps' stock is NOT government surplus 130 mg tablets. It is also chewable and especially recommended for children because our youngsters are extremely susceptible to thyroid cancer after exposure to radioactive contamination.
"Remember, be it a spill, accident, war or terrorism, Potassium Iodate is the only chemical which will protect you and your children. For those who are interested, it can be used for your pets also.
"1 Bottle = 100 150mg pills.
"Use during a Nuclear Emergency ONLY
* For the first 14 days take 1 tablet twice a day. This is a total of 2 tablets per day.
* For the next 76 days take 1 tablet per day.
"Potassium Iodate 150mg is a superior form of "KI" because of its extended shelf life and lack of bitter taste. The extra molecule of oxygen in Potassium Iodate 150mg (actually K103), can guarantee the Iodate's continued freshness without adding stabilizers. Keep the bottle sealed, dry, and out of sunlight. It should remain stable for a generation.
"Why should it be used?
"During a Nuclear Disaster, such as War, Terrorism, a MeltDown or Spill, great amounts of Radioactive Iodine-131 are often released. Even though I-131 is radioactive, it is still Iodine ... and Iodine is what the Thyroid requires to operate correctly. The Thyroid does not know the difference between "good" iodine and "bad" iodine and will readily absorb Radioactive 131 if allowed to. What must be done in case of a nuclear accident is to SATURATE the Thyroid with the good Iodine so that the bad iodine cannot do irreparable damage. The blocking must be done on a daily basis at least 12 hours BEFORE the nuclear emergency starts and it must be continued for at least 80 days. [???]
"Medical Corps is an organization of retired United States Armed Forces personnel united to bring to the citizenry of the nation education and training in survival and emergency medical techniques.
"Ralph Charles "Chuck" Fenwick is the founder and chief administrator of Medical Corp.
Address label on bottle:
45161 State Route 821
Caldwell, OH 43724
"New Important Information
[ the guy said for the last year, and the military is switching over to Postassium Iodate. He told us some info that we KNOW is not true, so we're being cautious ]
"New Thyroid Blocking Power
Did anyone besides Medical Corps understand what it means to have 100 suitcase Atomic Bombs unaccounted for by the former Soviet Union? Or maybe it is just a coincidence, but the US Government has instituted an NBC crash training program for emergency medical personnel in 120 cities nation wide! Medical Corps is involved with just that sort of training and has been for two years. One of the emergency procedures being taught is the use of the Thyroid Blocker called KI. This is the only chemical which will protect a human from absorbinb Radioactive Iodine 131. Iodine 131 is deadly and is especially toxic to children.
"Medical Corps now carries a superior form of KI. In the past we have marketed Potassium Iodide 150mg. Now we can offer a new product called Potassium Iodate 150mg.
"Medical Corps carries this superior form of KI. Potassium Iodate has an extra molecule of Oxygen which makes it more shelf stable than Iodide or Iodine. It is not as bitter as Potassium Iodide and can be chewed. Unlike the government surplus 130mg Iodide, Medical Corps chose the 150mg strength, as this will extend the thyroid blocking.
The store is called "American Family Network," and their website is at
Helps if your browser can see/use frames.
xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx
-- Ashton & Leska in Cascadia (firstname.lastname@example.org), July 13, 1999.
Does anyone out there have the chemical knowledge to tell us the difference in iodaTe and iodaDe. I understand that they are closely related and according to some advertisements the iodaTe is better.
I have seen iodaDe recommended by sources I trust. If iodaTe is equal in effect and safe, then it appears to be a better product from the cost perspective. Significant cost.
I've tried doing searches on iodaTe and only find avdertisemets, with one exception which was a reference to someone chemical experiments. Part of that information (chemical descriptions) stated that iodaTe would severly irritate the skin. (Yes, I know that asparin and coca cola will too.) I'm not avoiding iodaTe on that basis, that's just all the info I can find. Except from someone trying to sell me something.
This is a particularly vexing problem since one cannot "test" the substance before hand. And if needed after "those *real* bright lights" on the horizon, it's a little late to find out you have the wrong thing or it's not effective.
ps, not interested in arguments why I don't need it.
-- Greybear (email@example.com), July 14, 1999.
(Ref. 1): Potassium iodate-- MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETMost people in iodine deficient areas use unrefined salt that can be effectively supplemented with KIO3 without added carrier agents or stabilizers. Iodate is more stable under adverse climatic conditions than iodide and does not require stabilizers. It is also less soluble than iodide and less likely to migrate from the bag but is only sparingly soluble in water at low temperatures. However, solutions of up to 40 g/L (4% approximately) are readily obtainable. Such a solution is sufficient for salt iodization even at iodine levels of 100 mg/kg. The addition of 0.1% moisture to crude salt, which may already contain 1-5% moisture has no adverse effect. Potassium iodate breaks down rapidly in the human body and effectively delivers iodide to the thyroid gland for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. It is not toxic, and has been approved and recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives as safe when used within the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) for iodine of 1 mg from all sources. Even at the highest dosages currently used, iodine intake through iodized salt is unlikely to exceed 20% of this value.Potassium iodate, reagent acs (powder)
EMERGENCY OVERVIEW Appearance: Not available. Danger! Strong oxidizer. Contact with other material may cause a fire. May cause kidney damage. May cause central nervous system effects. Can be explosive when exposed to heat or flames. May cause eye and skin irritation. May cause respiratory and digestive tract irritation. Target Organs: Kidneys, central nervous system.
Potential Health Effects Eye: May cause eye irritation. Skin: May cause skin irritation. Ingestion: May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation. Chronic: Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause irritation. Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause gastrointestinal irritation and kidney damage. Chronic ingestion may cause central nervous system failure.
(Ref. 2)" Choice and Dosage of Iodine Compound for Salt Iodization
(Ref. 3): Scotland: nuclear accident exercise (1997)
Distribution of Potassium Iodate Tablets (PITs)
This is a major issue which has still not been properly addressed. One of the worst results of the Chernobyl disaster is that large numbers of children in Belarus and the Ukraine have developed thyroid cancer. These could have been prevented if the children had been issued with Potassiuum Iodate Tablets (PITs) within 1 or 2 hours of the accident. In France a decision has recently been taken to predistribute PITs to those living within 5 kms of nuclear sites. Some predistribution has also taken place around Devonport dockyard. Plans for distributing PITs in the event of a nuclear submarine accident in Scotland are inadequate. In Scotland it is still assumed that local health boards would be able to arrange for mass distribution of these tablets in the immediate aftermath of an accident. However when this was actually tried during one experiment in England, the exercise was soon abandoned. It was discovered that the whole process took far longer than planned because each household had to be told verbally what to do with the tablets.
(Ref. 4): PRACTICAL GUIDANCE ON PLANNING FOR INCIDENTS INVOLVING RADIOACTIVITY
1.4 Administration of potassium iodate tabletsThe same page has a wonderfully British overview of the problem:
Where material escaping after an incident at a nuclear installation contains radioactive iodine this may be inhaled, or ingested, via contaminated food or water. This will give a radiation dose, in particular to the thyroid which concentrates and stores any form of iodine. A radiation dose from ingestion can be averted or minimised by restrictions in the supply of food most likely milk and milk products. 1,2 Uptake of inhaled radioactive iodine to the thyroid can be blocked by the administration of stable (ie non-radioactive) iodine. Whilst most effective if given shortly before or immediately after exposure, stable iodine will still block uptake of radioactive iodine to a useful extent up to some hours after exposure. However, it is most important that it be administered as speedily as possible once the need for it becomes apparent.
Evacuation is the only countermeasure which has the potential to prevent virtually all exposure to a release. However, this is only achieved if the evacuation is carried out before the release occurs.
What I make out of all this is that potassium iodate is a caustic chemical, toxic in many ways. Low concentrations are used routinely (and safely) to iodize table salt to provide a source of iodine, a deficiency of which causes thyroid problems such as goiter. It's recommended for use in tablet form when a risk of ingesting radioactive I-131 exists. The only dosage information I could find is in Ref. 2 above:
"...approved and recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives as safe when used within the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) for iodine of 1 mg from all sources."
-- Tom Carey (firstname.lastname@example.org), July 14, 1999.
tom, i saw detailed dosage info on the other yourdon forum some months ago, and it said that the dose should be different for infants, children and adults. i don't have the thread handy.
also, you may want to read this recent press release about laggard nuclear reactors in the u.s. some of them, like cook nuclear, don't plan on being ready until late december. i am less than thrilled, as i live near one of cook's plants in southwestern michigan.
-- jocelyne slough (email@example.com), July 16, 1999.
Thanks for all the good info, Tom.
However, I'm still confused between ioDINE, ioDATE, and ioDADE.
The terms seem to be used almost interchangeably. But my ignorance is so massive here that I'm hesitant about buying something until I can know that I'm getting the right stuff.
Still looking for the one-or-two-sylibal-word answer.
-Greybear, D.I.C. (dummy in confusion)
-- Greybear (firstname.lastname@example.org), July 16, 1999.
I would like to know if anyone can tell me where to find a USA map of all nuke facilities, along with a map of prevailing winds??? I asked this question on some other thread, but then slept through the night and forgot the thread title to go back and look for any answers.
-- jeanne (email@example.com), July 16, 1999.
Greybear-- this isn't exactly 1 and 2 syllable stuff, but I think you can slog through it..... <[:-)
KI And Nuclear Accidents (American Thyroid Association. No dosages given.)
Potassium Iodide (systemic) (Johns Hopkins Univ.)Potassium iodide (oral) (Johns Hopkins Univ.)
Some commonly used brand names are: In the U.S. Pima; In Canada Thyro-Block*. Generic name product may be available in the U.S. Other commonly used names are KI and SSKI. (* Not commercially available in the U.S.; however, potassium iodide tablets are available to government and public health organizations for use in radiation emergencies.)
Description Potassium iodide (poe-TAS-ee-um EYE-oh-dide) is used to treat overactive thyroid and to protect the thyroid gland from the effects of radiation from inhaled or swallowed radioactive iodine. It may be used before and after administration of medicine containing radioactive iodine or after accidental exposure to radioactive iodine (for example, from nuclear power plant accidents that involved release of radioactivity to the environment). It may also be used for other problems as determined by your doctor.
Potassium iodide is taken by mouth. It may be taken as an oral solution, syrup, uncoated tablet, or enteric-coated tablet. However, the enteric-coated tablet form may cause serious side effects and its use is generally not recommended.
Some brands of the oral solution are available without a prescription. Use them only as directed by state or local public health authorities in case of a radiation emergency. Other forms and strengths of potassium iodide are available only with your doctor's prescription.
Potassium iodide is available in the following dosage forms: Oral; Enteric-coated tablets (U.S.); Oral solution (U.S.); Syrup (U.S.); Tablets (Canada)
Proper Use of This Medicine For patients taking this medicine for radiation exposure:
Take this medicine only when directed to do so by state or local public health authorities. Take this medicine once a day for 10 days, unless otherwise directed by public health authorities. Do not take more of it and do not take it more often than directed. Taking more of the medicine will not protect you better and may result in a greater chance of side effects.
If potassium iodide upsets your stomach, take it after meals or with food or milk unless otherwise directed by your doctor. If stomach upset (nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, or diarrhea) continues, check with your doctor.
For patients taking the oral solution form of this medicine:
This medicine is to be taken by mouth even if it comes in a dropper bottle. Do not use if solution turns brownish yellow. Take potassium iodide in a full glass (8 ounces) of water or in fruit juice, milk, or broth to improve the taste and lessen stomach upset. Be sure to drink all of the liquid to get the full dose of medicine. If crystals form in potassium iodide solution, they may be dissolved by warming the closed container of solution in warm water and then gently shaking the container.
For patients taking the uncoated tablet form of this medicine:
Before taking, dissolve each tablet in 1/2 glass (4 ounces) of water or milk. Be sure to drink all of the liquid to get the full dose of medicine.
The dose of potassium iodide will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of potassium iodide. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so. The amount of solution or syrup or the number of tablets you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are taking potassium iodide.
For solution dosage form:
To treat overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism): Adults and teenagers 250 milligrams (mg) (0.25 milliliters [mL]) three times a day. ChildrenUse and dose must be determined by your doctor.
To protect the thyroid gland against radiation exposure: Adults and teenagers100 to 150 mg (0.1 to 0.15 mL) twenty-four hours before receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine. Then, once a day for three to ten days after receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine. Children up to 1 year of age65 mg (0.065 mL) once a day for ten days after receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine. Children 1 year of age or older130 mg (0.13 mL) once a day for ten days after receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine.
For syrup dosage form:
To protect the thyroid gland against radiation exposure: Adults and teenagers100 to 150 mg (about 1.5 to 2.3 mL) twenty-four hours before receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine. Then, once a day for three to ten days after receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine. Children up to 1 year of age65 mg (1 mL) once a day for ten days after receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine. Children 1 year of age or older130 mg (2 mL) once a day for ten days after receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine.
For tablet dosage form:
To protect the thyroid gland against radiation exposure: Adults and teenagers100 to 150 mg twenty-four hours before receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine. Then, once a day for three to ten days after receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine. Children up to 1 year of age65 mg once a day for ten days after receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine. Children 1 year of age and older 130 mg a day for ten days after receiving or being exposed to radioactive iodine.
If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
StorageTo store this medicine: Keep out of the reach of children. Store away from heat and direct light. Do not store the tablet form of this medicine in the bathroom, near the kitchen sink, or in other damp places. Heat or moisture may cause the medicine to break down. Keep the oral liquid forms of this medicine from freezing. Do not refrigerate. Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed. Be sure that any discarded medicine is out of the reach of children.
Side Effects of This Medicine
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. When this medicine is used for a short time at low doses, side effects usually are rare.
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
Less common: Hives; joint pain; swelling of arms, face, legs, lips, tongue, and/or throat; swelling of lymph glands.
With long-term use: Burning of mouth or throat; confusion; headache (severe); increased watering of mouth; irregular heartbeat; metallic taste; numbness, tingling, pain or weakness in hands or feet; soreness of teeth and gums; sores on skin; symptoms of head cold; unusual tiredness; weakness or heaviness of legs.
Other side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. However, check with your doctor if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome:
Less common: Diarrhea; nausea or vomiting; stomach pain
Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your doctor.
Revised: 04/14/92 Interim revision: 08/26/94
Potassium iodide (poe-TAS-ee-um EYE-oh-dide) is used to treat overactive thyroid. Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from radiation effects of radioactive iodine. It is used: -- before and after a patient has been given a medicine containing radioactive iodine. -- after radioactive iodine has been accidentally inhaled (for example, after certain nuclear power plant accidents). Potassium iodide may also be used for other problems.
Tell your doctor, nurse, and pharmacist if you: have allergies; are pregnant or plan to become pregnant; are breast-feeding; are taking any other medicine, including those you buy yourself such as aspirin or cold medicine; have any other medical problems.
Take this medicine: exactly the way your doctor told you; after meals or with food or milk if it upsets your stomach, unless your doctor gave you other directions. Check with your doctor if stomach upset continues.
If you are taking this medicine because you have been exposed to radiation, take it: only when directed to do so by state or local public health people; once a day for 10 days, unless you are given other directions.
If you are taking the oral solution:
Take it by mouth even if it comes in a dropper bottle. not use if the solution turns brownish yellow. Take this medicine in a full glass (8 ounces) of water or in fruit juice, milk, or broth to help it taste better and lessen stomach upset. Drink all of the liquid to get the full dose. If crystals form in potassium iodide solution, dissolve the crystals by warming the closed container in warm water then gently shaking it.
If you are taking the uncoated tablets:
Dissolve each tablet in 1/2 glass (4 ounces) of water or milk. Drink all of the liquid to get the full dose. If you miss a dose, take the medicine as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose. Do not double doses. Visit your doctor regularly.
If you are on a low-potassium diet:
Check with your doctor or pharmacist before you take this medicine. This medicine contains potassium.
Tell your doctor if you notice any of these possible side effects:
Less common -- Hives; joint pain; swelling of arms, face, legs, lips, tongue, or throat; swelling of lymph glands
With long-term use -- Burning of mouth or throat; confusion; headache (severe); increased watering of mouth; irregular heartbeat; metallic taste; numbness, tingling, pain or weakness in hands or feet; soreness of teeth and gums; sores on skin; symptoms of head cold; unusual tiredness; weakness or heaviness of legs.
Also tell your doctor if you have any other side effects. Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist if you do not understand these instructions or want more information.
The iodate and iodide are different chemical compounds:
Potassium iodate (KIO3): Synonyms: Iodic acid, potassium salt; CAS No.: 7758-05-6; Molecular Weight: 214.00; Product Codes: J.T. Baker: 3156 Mallinckrodt: 1091, 1094, 4896
Potassium iodide (KI): Synonyms: Potide; hydriocic acid, potassium salt; Iodic acid, potassium salt; CAS No.: 7681-11-0; Molecular Weight: 166.0; Product Codes: J.T. Baker: 3162, 3165, 3168 Mallinckrodt: 1103, 1108, 1112, 1113, 1115, 1117, 1123, 1127, 1200, 1220, 6334, 6336
(I'm always surprised at how much turns up on the web!)
On dosage for the iodate form, I found only this discussion: http://y2kchaos.com/s35p650.htm , whihc may not be quite as authoritative as the Johns Hopkins material.SODIUM AND POTASSIUM IODIDES: Sodium iodide is 85% iodine by wt, so the iodine would be .85 gm/kg body wt for sodium iodide tolerated above, sodium iodate is 64% iodine by wt, but it is the iodate not the iodine that is toxic in it, and the rate which you absorb it matters a lot, for it is very fast turned into iodide by body fluids. However the amounts of either you take for fallout protection is so far below the danger levels that it is not an important factor. For example 75 mg/kg toxic level for iodates amounts to 7500 mg, or 7.5 grams for a 100 kg (about 220 lbs) adult, where the dose for fallout is only 0.15 gram a day, or about one fiftieth the toxic level. and, 1 gm/kg for iodides amounts to 200 gms for a 100 kg (big person!) which is about half pound of the stuff, which in rabbits produced no mentioned severe symptoms for it was tolerated. At a max dose rate for fallout protection of 140 mg iodine (pure iodine contained in the iodide) the dose of iodide is 166 mg of the iodide in 100 kg body = 1.6 mg/kg which is about one six hundredth the tolerated dose for rabbits cited above. So it can be seen that these doses are way below the known severe symptom levels.
-- Tom Carey (firstname.lastname@example.org), July 16, 1999.
Jeanne -- this map shows reactors in North America -- maps of reactors in the rest of the world are also available at this site.
Maps of Nuclear Power Reactors: NORTH AMERICA
-- Tom Carey (email@example.com), July 16, 1999.
Thanks Tom! However, when I tried to use the link to get to the map, a message of NOT FOUND came up several times. Do you have the actual address. Appreciate it very much!!
-- jeanne (Jeanne@hurry.now), July 17, 1999.
I should have checked that link before I posted it. The URL has an extraneous doublequote at the end of it. Here it is again, in working order: Maps of Nuclear Power Reactors: NORTH AMERICA
-- Tom Carey (firstname.lastname@example.org), July 17, 1999.
It turns out the map shows decommissioned reactors as well as operating reactors. So, on the national map, you have to click on the region title, then on the regional map click on the reactor name to find its status.
-- Tom Carey (email@example.com), July 17, 1999.
Thanks a million, Tom.
-- Greybear (firstname.lastname@example.org), July 18, 1999.