Need your help. gang!greenspun.com : LUSENET : TimeBomb 2000 (Y2000) : One Thread
Does anyone know anything about a FBI Y2K response center that is being or has been created, possibly on the west coast? Primarily geared towards stopping sabotage or terrorism associated with the century rollover. Help appreciated...
-- Scott Johnson (email@example.com), April 19, 1999
FBI Will Set Up Y2K-Related Anti-Terrorism Unit
-- (firstname.lastname@example.org), April 19, 1999.
thanks, Trendwatcher...I think that's exactly what I was looking for... scott
-- Scott Johnson (email@example.com), April 19, 1999.
Just noticed a link The Terrorism Research Center
COUNTER TERRORISM EXPO & SEMINAR April 19-21, 1999, Atlanta, Georgia Sponsored by the TRC
See seminar topics for possible knowledgable source contacts ...
Department of Defense Terrorism Threat Reduction Program new multi- billion dollar program funded to reduce threat of terrorism to America and the U.S. commercial interests abroad." Perry Smith, Senior Advisor from the Federal Bureau of Investigation to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, U.S. Department of Defense, Washington, DC.
State & Federal Anti-Terrorism Training Program Unique insight into the federal training program with special highlights of nations largest anti-terrorism training facility where over 25,000 federal, state, local and international officers are trained annually. Stephen W. Brooks, Chief of (S.T.A.R.) Small Town And Rural Training Branch, (FLETC) Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Glynco, Georgia
Might be an info source. Also ...
200 N. Glebe Road, Suite 915
Arlington, VA 22203
Tel: 703/527-8000 Fax: 703/527-8006
Or try asking the firstname.lastname@example.org at ...
CDISS, the Centre for Defence & International Security
Will try other leads.
-- Diane J. Squire (email@example.com), April 19, 1999.
Diane, as per usual, you're right on top of things. How goes it in the lovely Bay Area?
-- Scott Johnson (firstname.lastname@example.org), April 19, 1999.
SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER The Southern Poverty Law Center provides quite a bit of information on hate groups, check it out at http://www.splcenter.org. SPLC published a 1998 report on hate groups in America. Check out this long address: http://www.splcenter.org/cgi-bin/goframe.pl?dirname=/intelligenceproje ct&pagename=ip-4i1.html
SPLC also publishes an interesting list of hate groups and incidents of hate crimes. In terms of Y2K relatedness, you might have to know which churches (for example) are emphasizing TEOTWAWKI before this list will help you. Or hold on to the list and refer to it as you go: http://www.splcenter.org/cgi-bin/goframe.pl?dirname=/intelligenceproje ct&pagename=ip-2.html
You might scan through the state by state incidences of the 1998 hate crimes to see if anything is Y2K related. I checked some states and didn't see anything. http://www.splcenter.org/cgi-bin/goframe.pl?dirname=/intelligenceproje ct&pagename=ip-hate98.html
In the Fall 1998 Intelligence Report (published by the SPLC), they interview Robert Blitzer and he makes comments about the extremist views of the year 2000 and the Y2K computer bug, weapons of mass destruction, and the state of the antigovernment and white supremacist movements. I do not remeber seeing anything about setting up a center.
Said Blitzer of Y2K:
"I think its [Y2K Problems] just another manifestation of their [hate groups'] paranoia. Its like everything else that weve seen in the past -- black helicopters, those kinds of things..."
In their leading article of the Fall 1998 issue, "Millenium Y2Kaos: Fear of Computer Bug Fueling Far Right," they write:
"...there is no question that a large number of extremists have pegged the year 2000 as a critical date. For many, it will be the time when Christian patriots, the 'children of light,' must do battle with the satanic 'forces of darkness.' Others believe 'one-world' conspirators will attack American patriots on that date."
"Many experts, including Barkun and the FBIs Blitzer, agree that extremists fears and hopes surrounding y2k have increased the danger of domestic terrorism. "It adds to apocalyptic fears," says Chip Berlet, who studies the far right for Cambridge-based Political Research Associates. "Therefore, it adds to the potential for violence."
NORTHWEST COALITION AGAINST MALICIOUS HARASSMENT Couldn't get to the web site. Maybe the server is down. But you might get them on the phone at 1-888-214-9218. I haven't checked the number to see if it works. It seems like this would be a good place to start.
Sincerely, Stan Faryna
-- Stan Faryna (email@example.com), April 19, 1999.
Stan, thanks for the info. Will likely come in handy later. Right now I'm tracking down info about this alleged center for my boss, James Adams, who thought he saw something about it around the beginning of the year...
-- Scott Johnson (firstname.lastname@example.org), April 19, 1999.
Currently, the Bay Areas quite lovely, Scott. (Sunny, and I should be outside, but ... you know me with a research challenge ...)
Trying some backwater searching.
Interesting little snippet ...
Copyright ) 1999 The Seattle Times Company
National/World News : Monday, April 19, 1999
U.S. has spent billions to combat terrorism
by David Jackson
The Dallas Morning News
http:// archives.seattletimes.com/cgi-bin/texis.mummy/web/vortex/ display?storyID=371b86d58c&query=FBI+and+terrorism
... The Justice Department said it has spent $1.1 billion over the past two budget years specifically on counterterrorism. For the two- year cycle that ends Oct. 1, 2000, the department plans to invest an additional $1.6 billion. This doesn't include terrorism-related spending of other federal agencies.
Most of the law-enforcement money goes to the FBI, which in 1996 formally created its own Counterrorism Center. By the end of this year, the bureau will have doubled the number of federal-local Joint Terrorism Task Forces, to 22. ...
[snip -- although the article doesnt SAY Y2K, working with all these folks could be an indicator]
... Some government officials like to refer to all of these programs as "domestic preparedness" rather than counterterrorism. Kuker, who directs the FBI National Domestic Preparedness Office, said the key to its success is cooperation throughout the public sector.
"Probably for the first time ever, law enforcement is dealing in earnest with fire chiefs, emergency managers, emergency medical folks, hospital emergency-room doctors, emergency-room nurses, the National Governor's Association . . ." Kuker said. ...
-- Diane J. Squire (email@example.com), April 19, 1999.
To add to Diane's find... "The FBI opened up a new office, the National Domestic Preparedness Office, that will offer local police, fire and rescue workers Federal training and equipment to respond to chemical, biological or nuclear attacks by terrorists. (AP, 10/16/98)"
"The FBI unveiled a $20 million crisis center, the Strategic Information and Operations Center, equipped with computers and communications equipment. (Reuters, 11/20/98)"
SOURCE: Counterterrorism at Home Number 16 / Winter 1998 http://www.adl.org/frames/front_terrorism_up.html
-- Stan Faryna (firstname.lastname@example.org), April 19, 1999.
So far, Scott, without specifically saying a Y2K center, its certainly an FBI focus.
I suspect your Y2K office is either part of the Joint Terrorism Task Force groups or, more probably, a sub-set of the new National Domestic Preparedness Office.
Its in the puzzle pieces.
FBI SLC Programs - Terrorism
... The FBI is the lead agency in the fight against terrorism in the United States. Terrorism can originate both from outside the country, as with the World Trade Center Bombing in New York City, and from within the US, as demonstrated by the Oklahoma City Bombing. The FBI maintains close working relationships with other government intelligence agencies, as well as with foreign agencies, that provide beneficial resources in preventing and responding to potential terroristic threats to the United States. To further assist in this area of law enforcement, the FBI has established the Counter- Terrorism Center, in conjunction with 18 federal agencies, to provide immediate real-time assistance in the event of an act of terror within the US. Also, within the United States, the FBI is the lead agency in responding to acts of Nuclear, Biological, or Chemical terrorism.
U.S. Senate Testimony
See ... February 4, 1999 Hearing on Counterterrorism
FBI Congressional Testimony
Statement for the Record of
Louis J. Freeh, Director
Federal Bureau of Investigation
United States Senate
Committee on Appropriations
Subcommittee for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State,
the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
February 4, 1999
Also at ...
The Domestic Terrorism Threat
Domestic terrorist groups are those which are based and which operate entirely within the United States, or its territories, and whose activities are directed at elements of the United States Government or its civilian population. Domestic terrorist groups represent interests that span the full political spectrum, as well as social issues and concerns. FBI investigations of domestic terrorist groups or individuals are not predicated upon social or political beliefs; rather, they are based upon planned or actual criminal activity. The current domestic terrorist threat primarily comes from right-wing extremist groups, Puerto Rican extremist groups, and special interest extremists.
Right-wing Extremist Groups.
The threat from right-wing extremist groups includes militias, white- separatist groups, and anti-government groups. All right-wing extremist groups tend to encourage massing weapons, ammunition and supplies in preparation for a confrontation with federal law enforcement, as well as local law enforcement who are often perceived as agents for the State/Federal government.
The goal of the militia movement is to defend and protect the United States Constitution from those who want to take away the rights of Americans. The militia movement believes that the United States Constitution gives Americans the right to live their lives without government interference. The FBI is not concerned with every single aspect of the militia movement since many militia members are law- abiding citizens who do not pose a threat of violence. The FBI focuses on radical elements of the militia movement capable and willing to commit violence against government, law enforcement, civilian, military and international targets (U.N., visiting foreign military personnel). Not every state in the union has a militia problem. Militia activity varies from states with almost no militia activity (Hawaii, Connecticut) to states with thousands of active militia members (Michigan, Texas).
The American militia movement has grown over the last decade. Factors contributing to growth include:
GUNS- The right to bear arms is an issue which almost all militia members agree and most militia members believe a conspiracy exists to take away their guns. The national system of instant background checks for all gun buyers, mandated by the 1993 Brady Act and which actually was implemented on November 30, 1998, has further angered many militia groups. These militia members see this new law as another example of how the government is conspiring to take away their guns. The banning of semiautomatic assault weapons has also angered many militia members .
STATE LAWS- Militias resent state laws forbidding them to gather together to fire weapons. Sixteen states have laws which prohibit all militia groups and 17 states have laws which prohibit all paramilitary training.
MISTRUST OF FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT- is frequently mentioned in militia literature and overall militia mythology. FBI and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) actions, such as Ruby Ridge, the Branch Davidians, and the Freeman standoff, are cited, and thus are hated and distrusted by many militia members.
TAXES- Militia members believe that they pay too many taxes and that those tax dollars are wasted by a huge, uncaring and inefficient bureaucracy in Washington, D.C. Since the Internal Revenue Service collects federal taxes, it is widely hated by militia members.
THE UNITED NATIONS - is perceived as an organization bent on taking over the world and destroying American democracy and establishing "the New World Order." The New World Order theory holds that, one day, the United Nations will lead a military coup against the nations of the world to form a one-world government. United Nations troops, consisting of foreign armies, will commence a military takeover of America. The United Nations will mainly use foreign troops on American soil because foreigners will have fewer reservations about killing American citizens. Captured United States military bases will be used to help conquer the rest of the world.
Most of the militia movement has no racial overtones and does not espouse bigotry; there are some black and Jewish militia members. However, the pseudo-religion of Christian Identity, as well as other hate philosophies, have begun to creep into the militia movement. This scenario is currently being played out in the Michigan Militia, arguably the largest militia group in America. Lynn Van Huizen, leader of the Michigan Militia Corps, is currently trying to oust Christian Identity factions from his group. Christian Identity is a belief system that provides both a religious base for racism and anti- Semitism, and an ideological rationale for violence against minorities. This pattern of racist elements seeping into the militia movement is a disturbing trend, as it will only strengthen the radical elements of the militias.
Many white supremacist groups adhere to the Christian Identity belief system, which holds that the world is on the verge of a final apocalyptic struggle between God/Christ and Satan (The Battle of Armageddon) in which Aryans (European Caucasians) must fight Satan's heirs: Jews, nonwhites and their establishment allies (i.e., the Federal Government). The Christian Identity belief system (also known as Kingdom Identity) provides a religious base for racism and anti-Semitism, and an ideological rationale for violence against minorities and their white allies. Christian Identity teaches that the white race is the chosen race of God, whites are the "true Israelites" and Jews are the Children of Satan. Adherents believe that Jews have increasingly gained control of the United States Federal Government and are attempting to enslave the white population by enacting laws subjugating the white people, such as affirmative action, pro-choice, and anti-gun statutes.
To prepare for Armageddon, many Identity adherents engage in survivalist and paramilitary training, storing foodstuffs and supplies, and caching weapons and ammunition. As the next millennium approaches, Identity's more extreme members may take action to prepare for Armageddon, including armed robbery to finance the upcoming battle, destroying government property and infrastructure, and targeting Jews and nonwhites.
Due to Christian Identity adherents' widespread propaganda efforts and Identity's racist/anti-Semitic/anti-government appeal, there are a number of churches and diverse organizations throughout the United States that embrace the doctrines of Identity. Identity beliefs are also increasingly found in the rhetoric of all types of right-wing extremist groups, including, but not limited to, militias, survivalist communes, the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazis, skinheads, tax protesters, and common law courts. Thus, with the approaching millennium, there is a greater potential for members from such Identity influenced groups to engage in violent activities as well.
As the next millennium approaches, violent and illegal acts may increase, due to Christian Identity's belief that the world is on the verge of a final apocalyptic struggle (aka The Battle of Armageddon) between God/Christ and Satan. Identity members believe that this entails Aryans (European Caucasians) fighting Satan's heirs (Jews, non-whites, and their establishment allies). To prepare, Identity adherents engage in survivalist and paramilitary training. As the year 2000 approaches, more extreme members may take action to prepare for or bring about "Armageddon," including armed robbery to finance the upcoming battle, destroying government property and targeting Jews and non-whites.
Other Anti-Government Groups.
The other right-wing anti-government groups include Freemen, "sovereign" citizens, and common law courts. The Freemen and sovereign citizens believe they have the right to renounce their citizenship, after which they do not have to comply with any laws or rules and the federal government would have no influence over them. In addition, some, like the Freemen, believe they have the right to issue their own money which is called "certified comptroller warrants."
Some members of the right-wing have formed their own system of laws to enforce and follow (called common law courts) to replace the existing court system. The common law courts have no basis in jurisprudence, but participants claim legitimacy based on the laws of the Old Testament, English common law, the Magna Carta and commercial law. Some common law courts have issued arrest warrants, but as of yet, there are no reports that any of these arrests have been accomplished.
Intelligence Collection, Analysis, and Dissemination.
The collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence regarding terrorist activities and threats are critical to the success of FBI efforts to prevent incidents and in the investigation of acts that do occur. Within the FBI, we have several programs and initiatives to do this.
With the Subcommittee's support, the FBI established the Counterterrorism Center at FBI Headquarters in 1995. The FBI Counterterrorism Center encompasses the operations of the FBI's International Terrorism Operations Section and Domestic Terrorism Operations Section. Just this week the Diplomatic Security Service joined nineteen other federal agencies assigning personnel to the FBI Counterterrorism Center. Other agencies in the Center include: the Air Force Office of Special Investigations, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, the Internal Revenue Service, the National Security Agency, the Naval Criminal Investigative Service, the United States Customs Service, the United States Marshals Service, and the United States Secret Service. The proposed National Domestic Preparedness Office would also become a partner with the Counterterrorism Center to ensure domestic preparedness programs and activities can benefit from counterterrorism operational experiences and reflect the most up-to-date threat information for making decisions on training and equipment grants.
[This agency list reads like the whos who of the Presidents Year 2000 group headed by John Koskinen!!].
Providing intelligence and threat information to our State and local partners is accomplished through the Counterterrorism Center and the National Infrastructure Protection Center. Depending upon the nature of the information, we use one or more of several avenues for dissemination. The FBI has expanded the Terrorist Threat Warning System, first implemented in 1989, to reach all aspects of the law enforcement and intelligence communities. Nationwide dissemination of unclassified information is achieved through the National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System (NLETS). In addition, the FBI transmits threat information to security managers of thousands of United States commercial interests around the country through the Awareness of National Security Issues and Response (ANSIR) program. The National Infrastructure Protection Center also uses NLETS and ANSIR to reach State and local law enforcement and others regarding cyber and infrastructure-related threats and information. The Center has developed the InfraGard program which facilitates the sharing of information about computer intrusions and research related to infrastructure protection among network participants.
The proposed National Domestic Preparedness Office anticipates providing special bulletins and related information on weapons of mass destruction issues to a much broader base of State and local agencies, consisting of law enforcement, fire fighter, emergency medical services, public health, and emergency management, through the Law Enforcement On-Line intranet, a website accessible through the Internet, newsletters, and a toll- free assistance number.
Another mechanism for promoting coordination during an incident is the FBI's new Strategic Information and Operations Center, which was dedicated this past November. Congress provided funding for this project beginning in 1995. The new Strategic Information and Operations Center allows us to handle multiple incidents simultaneously. It also provides us with greatly enhanced communications capabilities between FBI Headquarters and field offices, as well as between the FBI and other federal agencies. Our coordination of operational efforts in East Africa were hampered, somewhat, by the physical and technical limitations of the old center.
The FBI and the Central Intelligence Agency have taken several steps to improve cooperation between agencies, including the exchange of deputies, exchange of personnel assigned to each agency's counterterrorism center, joint meetings, and joint operational and analytical initiatives.
At the field operational level, the FBI sponsors 18 Joint Terrorism Task Forces in major cities to maximize interagency cooperation and coordination among federal, State, and local law enforcement. Currently, 327 full-time and part-time federal, State, and local law enforcement personnel participate on these task forces, in addition to FBI personnel. Federal law enforcement participants include the Immigration and Naturalization Service, the United States Secret Service, the Naval Criminal Investigative Service, Central Intelligence Agency, Federal Protective Service, United States Marshals Service, United States Customs Service, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the United States Border Patrol, the United States Department of State, the Postal Inspection Service, and the Internal Revenue Service. All task force participants are provided appropriate security clearances that are necessary for their involvement in task force operations and investigations. Joint Terrorism Task Forces have played a critical role in many significant terrorism investigations. The FBI recently expanded this concept to include Regional Terrorism Task Forces. Regional task forces, of which two are now in existence, are designed to meet the needs of communities where a terrorism problem exists across a broader regional geographic area, but the situation does not warrant a full-time task force. Regional task forces meet on regular intervals to share information they have collected and determine if there is a nexus for that information to any ongoing investigation. The 5-Year Interagency Counterterrorism and Technology Crime Plan supports further expansion of FBI Joint Terrorism Task Forces where warranted by assessments of activity.
One of our most effective means of obtaining information is the use of court- authorized electronic surveillance. Communication, either written or conversations with accomplices, is central to any collaborative effort -- including terrorist conspiracies. The capability to lawfully intercept communications between criminals, terrorists, and foreign intelligence agents, has been instrumental in our past successes. These capabilities help the FBI, as well as law enforcement in our States and cities, to prevent acts and to save lives. This Subcommittee has been supportive our efforts to ensure that law enforcement does not lose its capabilities to lawfully intercept communications in the growing digital telecommunications environment. I hope that you will be able to support our request in the 2000 budget for $15,000,000 to support reimbursements to telecommunications carriers for costs incurred in complying with the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA).
The demand for accessing, examining, and analyzing computers and computer storage media for evidentiary purposes is becoming increasingly critical to our ability to investigate terrorism, child pornography, computer-facilitated crimes, and other cases. In the past, the Subcommittee has supported FBI efforts to establish a data forensics capability through our Computer Analysis Response Teams. There is a need to further expand this capability to address a growing workload. Indeed, our limited capability has created a backlog that impacts on both investigations and prosecutions. For 2000, the FBI is requesting 20 positions and $13,835,000 for our cryptanalysis and network data interception programs and 79 positions and $9,861,000 to expand our Computer Analysis Response Team capabilities.
Our Nation's critical infrastructure -- both cyber and physical -- present terrorists, hackers, criminals, and foreign agents with a target for attacks, the consequences of which could be devastating. Over the past several years, the Congress has been very supportive of FBI efforts to develop and improve its capabilities for investigating computer intrusions and other cyber- crimes. These efforts have included the establishment of the National Infrastructure Protection Center and the creation of specially-trained and equipped squads and teams in FBI field offices. For 2000, we are requesting increases of $1,656,000 for operations of the National Infrastructure Protection Center and 108 positions (60 agents) and $11,390,000 for additional field National Infrastructure Protection and Computer Intrusion squads and teams. Domestic Readiness.
The most potentially devastating threat facing the United States as we enter the next century is the terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction (large conventional explosive, chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear devices). For terrorists, symbolic targets, critical infrastructure or major special events make attractive targets. These acts may result in a significant loss of life, may cause psychological trauma and will attract a high level of media exposure.
While the United States holds little credible intelligence at this time indicating that international or domestic terrorists are planning to attack United States interests domestically through the use of weapons of mass destruction, a growing number (while still small) of `lone offender' and extremist splinter elements of right-wing groups have been identified as possessing or attempting to develop/use chemical, biological or radiological materials. Additionally, religious /apocalyptic sects which are unaffiliated with far right extremists may pose an increasing threat. With the coming of the next millennium, some religious/apocalyptic groups or individuals may turn to violence as they seek to achieve dramatic effects to fulfill their prophecies. The possibility of an indigenous group like Aum Supreme Truth cannot be excluded. In all likelihood, State and local law enforcement, emergency management, and public health agencies are going to be the first to respond to and contend with the aftermath of a terrorist's large-scale improvised explosive device or the release of chemical or biological agents. Congress has recognized the critical importance of State and local agencies in the national response to and management of such a crisis by providing assistance through several programs, such as the Department of Defense Nunn- Lugar-Domenici Domestic Preparedness Program and training and equipment grants under the auspices of the Office of Justice Programs. The FBI strongly supports efforts to train and equip State and local first responders whose assistance and expertise will be critical to our investigation of such terrorist incidents. I would like to describe three FBI-led initiatives supporting domestic readiness: the proposed National Domestic Preparedness Office, the Hazardous Devices School, and the equipping of State and local bomb squads.
During the development of the 5-Year Counterterrorism and Technology Crime Strategy, State and local stakeholders recommended that the Attorney General designate a single federal agency to coordinate the multitude of federal domestic preparedness activities. In October 1998, the Attorney General announced her proposal to establish a National Domestic Preparedness Office that would serve as a single point of contact for State and local authorities. The Attorney General delegated responsibility for implementing and managing the Office to the FBI. After several months of working with key federal agencies involved in this area, a blueprint to guide the implementation of the National Domestic Preparedness Office was prepared and is under review. Among the agencies we consulted with in developing the blueprint were: the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Defense, the National Guard Bureau, the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, various components within the Department of Justice, and State and local authorities. Using this blueprint as a guide, the Department recently submitted to the Subcommittee a notification to establish the National Domestic Preparedness Office.
The mission of the National Domestic Preparedness Office will be to assist State and local emergency response agencies (law enforcement, fire, hazardous materials, emergency medical services, emergency management, and public health) by serving as a single coordinating office and clearinghouse for federal efforts to prepare our Nation's communities for the threat posed by the terrorist use of a weapon of mass destruction. The Office will be organized around six program areas that will focus upon specific issues or areas, including: planning, training, exercises, equipment/research and development, information and intelligence sharing, and health and medical.
State and local acceptance of the National Domestic Preparedness Office is critical for its success. Part of the blueprint for the office is the creation of a State and local advisory group patterned after our highly successful Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. The individuals comprising this group will represent their respective areas of expertise and serve as a bridge between federal domestic preparedness program planning and the needs and priorities of states and local communities. We are also recruiting experienced individuals from State and local first responder groups to work in the National Domestic Preparedness Office. We also plan to solicit State and local agencies for detailees to the Office.
In our local communities, the work of the National Domestic Preparedness Office will be facilitated by a network of 56 full-time coordinators, one in each FBI field office. These local coordinators will serve as the primary point of contact for State and local emergency first responders. State and local officials will also be able to contact the National Domestic Preparedness Office through a toll-free assistance number, an Internet website, and the Law Enforcement On-Line intranet.
As we continue building state and local first responder preparedness and readiness, we must keep in mind that this undertaking is a long- term and costly commitment that must be sustained in the future. Equipment provided in 1999 will need to be upgraded or replaced in the future as newer, improved technologies become available. New protective equipment may also be needed to respond to changes in the chemical, biological, and nuclear threat. Basic training must be available for State and local employees who will be hired in the future. Advanced training must be provided to State and local personnel who have completed basic training to maintain competencies.
The proposed National Domestic Preparedness Office is part of our long-term commitment to sustaining state and local first responder readiness. Through this office, we hope to provide better, more coordinated service and assistance to State and local communities and reduce duplication among federal programs. [snip -- to end]
Other useful links ...
FBI Home page
FBI Site Map
-- Diane J. Squire (email@example.com), April 19, 1999.
Bold off... Just also note reference to "The new Strategic Information and Operations Center allows us to handle multiple incidents simultaneously.
Sound's Y2Kish to me!
-- Diane J. Squire (firstname.lastname@example.org), April 19, 1999.
-- Diane J. Squire (email@example.com), April 19, 1999.
Here is the link to the PDF File of the March 1999, Volume 68, Number 3 Issue of the FBI LAW ENFORCEMENT JOURNAL which happens to be about terrorism:
P.S. Diane, where do you get all that time?
-- Stan Faryna (firstname.lastname@example.org), April 19, 1999.
A day on the internet just disappears, doesn't it? While I have the free time, I've used it for researching.
-- Diane J. Squire (email@example.com), April 19, 1999.
Just some "extra" tidbits, as background material.
Thematic Code link from USIA ... Global Issues International Crime / Terrorism Last Updated March 31, 1999
From Attorney General Janet Renos Congressional Testimony February 4, 1999 ...
As you know, under Presidential Decisional Directives (PDDs) 39 and 62, roles and responsibilities of Federal agencies in counter- terrorism activities have been clarified. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the lead agency for responding to acts of domestic terrorism. The FBI continues to work to identify, prevent, deter, and defeat terrorist operations before they occur. We will not always be able to prevent every incident and we will have to respond to terrorist incidents here and abroad. In these instances the FBI will lead the Federal response to a domestic terrorist incident through the coordinated crisis response mechanism of its Counter- Terrorism Section. In addition, the FBI works with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as the lead agency for consequence management. Building on this framework the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) in the FBI is now a reality and is working to detect and respond to cyber-based attacks on our critical infrastructures.
[snip] We have proposed the establishment of the Office of State and Local Domestic Preparedness Support (OSDLPS) within the Office of Justice Programs (OJP) to coordinate the delivery of training, equipment and technical assistance to state and local first responders.
We have also proposed the establishment of the National Domestic Preparedness Office (NDPO) to be led by the FBI in partnership with OJP to provide a national-level coordinating office and single point of contact for the state and local responder community to access federal domestic preparedness programs, including those under the Department of Justice and other federal agencies.
In order to provide a coordinated capacity to respond to terrorist incidents, the FBI has created -- through funding provided by this Committee -- the Strategic Information Operations Center (SIOC). The SIOC is staffed 24 hours a day as a command post to direct special operations and to respond to terrorist incidents.
Working in coordination with state and local law enforcement the FBI has established 18 Joint Terrorism Task Forces operating in major cities. These task forces serve to enhance coordination and cooperation among federal, state and local law enforcement. Over 200 members of state and local law enforcement participate on these task forces with the FBI and other representatives from federal law enforcement to investigate terrorism incidents.
With the support of and at the direction of this Committee, we worked with other agencies to prepare the Administration's Five-Year Counter Terrorism and Technology Crime Plan (Five-Year Plan) which was submitted on December 30, 1998. The Five-Year Plan serves as a baseline strategy for coordination of a national policy and capabilities to combat terrorism in the United States and against American interests abroad. As this Committee directed, the Five-Year Plan was developed in partnership with other federal agencies, and with the input of academia and state and local law enforcement. The resources required by the actions set forth in this Plan will be presented in a separate Budget Addendum. I consider this Plan a living document and I am committed to working with you and your staff to update this Plan on a regular basis and to address issues as they arise either in the context of our strategy or individual incidents.
... the Five-Year Plan underscore the need to improve training and contingency planning to deal with mass casualties and major destruction from terrorist bombs. In these types of incidents, saving lives and treating the injured is our first priority. Yet, as we experienced in East Africa, necessary medical and emergency equipment was not always ready and available. We need to improve our planning and stockpiling for contingencies so that we can tailor our response for individual incidents.
Terrorists will not confine themselves to the use of conventional weapons. Our intelligence and investigative efforts indicate increasing interest in biological and chemical weapons. A terrorist attack using a biological weapon may not be immediately apparent, and the resulting impact on victims, police, firefighters, and emergency medical personnel -- the first responders on the scene -- could be far reaching. In fact, as we have found recently the mere threat of the use of unconventional weapons can cause concern and panic. Threats to release harmful biological or chemical substances cannot be ignored; they require a sizable commitment of law enforcement investigative resources before they can be discounted.
This underscores the need to train and equip first responders and emergency medical personnel adequately to deal with a range of unconventional weapons including dual use substances those which have a benign, legitimate use as well as potential use as weapons which pose an added risk. We are working with the Department of Health and Human Services, especially with the Public Health Service, to strengthen the preparedness of our public health and emergency medical resources to recognize and respond to terrorist events involving biological and chemical agents.
Because we are increasingly reliant upon interdependent networks we face the threat of cyber attacks on our infrastructure and information systems which could significantly harm our military power and our economy. The networks that connect our utilities, transportation, and telecommunications systems rely on the National Information Infrastructure (NII). These may prove to be attractive targets to cyber-terrorists looking to exploit the global nature of the Internet.
I share the Committee's concern that state and local officials be fully and continuously involved in our counter- terrorism planning efforts. I want to focus on what we are doing to include state and local first responders and to build trust and partnership relationships with those on the front lines who will be the first to respond in the aftermath of a terrorist attack.
We have looked to the state and local responder community to provide us valuable input throughout our planning efforts for instance in the stakeholder's conference, and in preparing the Five-Year Plan. In the proposed NDPO effort, an advisory committee of state and local authorities will be the bridge between the federal domestic preparedness program planning and the needs and priorities of the states and local emergency response and health care community.
In order to establish effective partnerships at the state and local level we must get state and local officials the information they need to protect the public and themselves and to aid their preparedness and response efforts. Through the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Forces and the Regional Terrorism Task Force concept, we are working to provide a means of sharing classified information on case-related matters with state and local law enforcement officials. These task forces, by themselves, do not address all of the situations in which state and local officials need access either to classified information or to information derived from classified material. We are developing a process investigating how to provide the appropriate security clearances so that state and local officials will get the information they need. In taking these steps, we are building on the FBI's thorough and efficient success in making threat warning information about specific threats to particular jurisdictions available in a timely manner. State and local officials who work side-by-side with federal officials, as in the NIPC and in the proposed NDPO, will hold appropriate security clearances.
In addition, first responders absolutely need access to the information necessary to protect the public and themselves, even when that information is classified. In many instances, the source or method by which the information was obtained, and which requires it to be classified, can be removed and the information declassified before it is shared with state and local officials. In the case of an actual or threatened terrorist incident, state and local personnel who need access to classified information will be provided clearances on an expedited basis. Finally, state and local officials participating on the advisory committee of the proposed NDPO will also be eligible to receive classified information, as needed, to help make policy recommendations.
Information sharing is critical to our preparedness efforts. As you know, the Five-Year Plan was classified in its entirety. We have recently made available to you a 50 page unclassified excerpt from the Five-Year Plan which addresses strategies to enhance state and local capabilities to respond to terrorist acts. We are making this document widely available to state and local authorities. ...
... domestic terrorism incidents have their initial and most devastating impact at the state and local levels. It is the first responder and emergency worker who must literally begin to pick up the pieces: locate, extricate, and treat the victims; put out the fires; and take the first steps to begin to restore order out of chaos. We owe it to these vital personnel and to ourselves to enable them to be adequately trained and equipped for these tasks. We cannot measure our preparedness to deal with terrorist acts without measuring the degree to which we have prepared first responders. Accordingly, we must continue to do everything we can to enhance the capabilities of state and local emergency responders, managers and officials who will play a critical role in the immediate response to such events.
We must recognize that there is no single template for interaction with state and local authorities since under our federal system there is considerable variation in how local governments are structured and organized. In the wake of a terrorist incident there may well be initial confusion as we organize ourselves and bring all our resources to bear on an effective response. But make no mistake, there is no confusion that the first priority of all concerned is the saving of lives.
I know there is concern that during a terrorist incident our communications infrastructure could be disabled -- thereby encumbering the ability of first responders to communicate by radio or telephone.< /b> Fortunately, such an occurrence would not cripple the Department's communications capacity. Some degree of infrastructure- independent radio communications, with security features intact, would still be feasible. We are dedicated to maintaining this core capacity. In addition, in our dealings with state and local public safety agencies, we emphasize their need to develop and maintain communications systems that are not wholly reliant on the existence of a communications infrastructure.
I. PREVENTING AND RESPONDING TO TERRORISM
A. National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC)
Within the last year the NIPC was established to deter, detect, analyze, investigate and provide warnings of cyber threats and attacks on the critical infrastructures of the United States, including illegal intrusions into government and private sector computer networks. The NIPC will also evaluate, acquire, and deploy computer equipment and cyber tools to support investigations and infrastructure protection efforts. NIPC will play a major role in the national plan for cyber protection, which the President has tasked in PDD 63. The national plan will be finalized shortly.
The NIPC continues to recruit personnel at FBI Headquarters and in the field. The NIPC currently has representatives from several government agencies including DOD, DOE, Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, Secret Service, the Postal and Inspection Service, as well as state law enforcement. The NIPC is also seeking private sector representatives.
B. Federal Crisis Response Structure
In the event of a domestic terrorist incident, under PDDs 39 and 62 the FBI is the lead agency for responding to terrorist threats and incidents occurring within the United States. As the lead agency for domestic terrorism response, the FBI will utilize its investigative and law enforcement expertise in the crisis management of a terrorist attack. The FBI will work with FEMA which has the lead responsibility for consequence management.
Responsibility for operational coordination of resources and information within the FBI during a terrorism event depends on the nature and venue of the crisis and the identity and affiliation of the perpetrators.
If a terrorist incident occurs, the FBI's SIOC is immediately activated. If necessary the new SIOC is capable of managing multiple crises simultaneously. The SIOC has been recently utilized and tested during recent alerts in response to intelligence developed in past weeks. During a crisis, the SIOC functions as the conduit for information and expertise at the headquarters level of all pertinent agencies and components.
In a WMD incident, consequence management personnel from FEMA, EPA, DOE, NDPO, and DOD will supplement FBI personnel in the SIOC just as they would supplement FBI personnel in the field in the Joint Operations Center (JOC). During a non-WMD incident, the SIOC structure closely resembles the structure of the FBI Command Post in the field.
If there is a terrorist attack against our critical infrastructures that is cyber in nature, the NIPC will coordinate crisis response activities with the Counter-Terrorism Section or the International Terrorism Section using the resources of the SIOC. To respond in a coordinated fashion, a crisis action team comprised of criminal investigators, computer scientists, analysts, watch standers, and other federal agency representatives will be formed. The crisis action team will attempt to determine the scope of the attack, the technology employed, and the possible source and purpose of the attack. The NIPC Watch and Warning Unit will continually assess the situation and issue warnings, as necessary, to federal agencies, state and local authorities, and the private sector. In the event of a physical attack on an infrastructure, the NIPC will support the investigation using its key asset network.
In the field, the FBI Field Office in the jurisdiction where a terrorist incident occurs will establish a Command Post under the direction of the Special Agent in Charge (SAC) to manage and coordinate the crisis response. If the terrorist incident is of the magnitude which requires the involvement of other agencies, the SAC will expand the Command Post into a Joint Operations Center (JOC). The FBI's Critical Incident Response Group will assist the field office in establishing the Command Post/JOC by providing tactical advice and equipment, and the Attorney Critical Incident Response Groups will provide additional advice and keep me informed at all critical stages of our response. If a crisis warrants it, Director Freeh may ask that I seek interagency approval for the deployment of the Domestic Emergency Support Team, also known as the DEST, to draw on specific federal agency expertise, to transport these additional experts to the field, and to incorporate them into the JOC. The composition of the DEST is tailored to the particular incident. In the event of chemical, biological or nuclear terrorism, HHS, EPA, DOD and DOE might be represented on the DEST.
The FBI is developing a comprehensive approach to all states which will help prevent, deter, and respond to terrorist threats by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating intelligence broadly and consistent with security concerns. The FBI has established Joint Terrorism Task Forces in 18 major metropolitan areas composed of state and local officials and local representatives from the FBI and other federal agencies such as the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the Customs Service, the Secret Service, and the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Participants, including state and local law enforcement officials, hold security clearances and work together, usually on a full-time basis to share information and investigate terrorist activities. Recognizing that not all terrorist activity is centered in urban areas, the FBI has developed the "Regional Terrorism Task Force" concept to serve several rural states with common terrorism concerns. Two such task forces have recently been established.
II. DOMESTIC PREPAREDNESS EFFORTS
A. Office of Justice Programs and the National Domestic Preparedness Office
... As you know, OJP is responsible for specific financial and technical assistance to state and local authorities under the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 and the Justice Department's FY 1998 and FY 1999 Appropriations Acts. OJP has served as the Justice Department's principal link to state and local jurisdictions in the areas of criminal and juvenile justice and victims services. OJP is now bringing that expertise and experience to the area of domestic preparedness. We have proposed the establishment of the Office of State and Local Domestic Preparedness Support (OSLDPS) within OJP to provide funds for equipment, training and technical assistance to state and local authorities and emergency responders. OSLDPS is proposed as one mechanism through which we will implement the mandate given to the Justice Department by this Committee to enhance the capabilities of state and local jurisdictions to better respond to incidents of domestic terrorism.
Additionally, we have proposed the creation of the National Domestic Preparedness Office (NDPO) which will be lead by the FBI working in partnership with OJP and all federal agencies engaged in WMD preparedness efforts. The NDPO is proposed as an interagency effort aimed at enhancing government-wide coordination among federal programs offering terrorism preparedness assistance to state and local communities. As such, the NDPO and OJP will work together as a team in a unified Justice Department effort to streamline access to federal preparedness assistance programs. The NDPO, in coordination with OJP, will serve state and local authorities as the single federal point of contact they have requested to facilitate their access to federal programs and resources which suit their preparedness needs. As the NDPO is established, we seek the active involvement of participating federal agencies, including FEMA, the DOD, HHS, DOE, and the EPA, as well as state and local authorities and emergency responder organizations. The participation of these agencies will be needed in staffing and in otherwise supporting this effort. I want to stress that the NDPO is not intended to be another layer of bureaucracy. Rather, it is intended to streamline access to federal domestic preparedness assistance programs.
With the NDPO we plan to build upon OJP's considerable expertise and experience in providing assistance to state and local authorities on a range of issues. With regard to equipment in the domestic preparedness effort the major federal response to state and local needs has been through the Nunn-Lugar equipment loan program which provides WMD-related training equipment. In 1998, the Justice Department through OJP provided $12 million for grants to local jurisdictions for personal protection, chemical/biological detection, decontamination and communications equipment. In 1999, OJP will award grants in partnership with the standards, policy and guidance of the NDPO. Under the OJP First Responder Equipment Acquisition Program, $69.5 million in grant monies will go out to the 157 largest cities and counties in the 50 states. An additional $4 million will fund equipment to support training provided through the National Domestic Preparedness Consortium. The Consortium was formally organized on June 11, 1998, in order to bring together various existing national assets, as identified in the Department's FY 1998 and 1999 Appropriations Acts, into a singular, coordinated, and integrated training architecture. The Consortium is comprised of the Center for Domestic Preparedness at Fort McClellan; the National Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; the National Center for Bio- Medical Research and Training located at the Louisiana State University; the National Emergency and Response and Rescue Training Center located at the Texas A & M University; and DOE's National Exercise, Test, and Training Center (Nevada Test Site).
... OJP projects distribution of the application kits to the selected jurisdictions by April 1, 1999. ...
B. The Five-Year Plan and Federal Agency Coordination
Let me lay out for you the mechanisms we have developed to ensure that federal agencies will work together and with the state and local community in the event of a terrorist incident within the U.S.
On December 30, 1998, I submitted to you the Administration's Five- Year Interagency Counter-Terrorism and Technology Crime Plan. ...
... The Plan addresses critical technologies for targeted research and development, preventing and deterring terrorism, integrating crisis and consequence management, protecting our National Information Infrastructure, and improving state and local capabilities. It represents our best thinking as to where we are now, where we need to go, and how we are going to get there in terms of national preparedness. ...
The Five-Year Plan is consistent with the PDDs issued last year. PDDs 62 and 63, set forth goals for national security, counter-terrorism and infrastructure protection. These directives specify and clarify lead agency roles in strengthening our preparedness for combating terrorism, protecting our critical infrastructures, and managing the consequences of terrorist acts, particularly those involving weapons of mass destruction. These directives establish the National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection and Counter-terrorism to oversee program coordination and to aid the National Security Council in carrying out its advisory role on issues of national security to the President. The National Coordinator does not direct the activities of the agencies, rather, he serves a coordinating function for the policies and programs on threats to the U.S. and to U.S. interests abroad, including attacks on our infrastructure, cyber systems, and government operations; terrorism; and defense against covert delivery of WMD.
The PDDs set out specific crisis and consequence management responsibilities in the event of a terrorist attack. PDDs 39 and 62 outlines the responsibilities of law enforcement and other agencies in responding to a terrorist incident. Numerous federal, state and local agencies have devoted considerable resources in recent years to the development of crisis and consequence management plans. We must work to integrate these plans so that in the event of a terrorist incident all those involved in the response and mitigation efforts work together.
One of the planning documents developed over the past year to further refine our interagency efforts in regard to domestic terrorism is the Concept of Operations Plan (CONPLAN). The CONPLAN seeks to establish a structure for a systematic, coordinated, effective national response to threats and acts of terrorism. The CONPLAN describes how the FBI crisis response structure, the Federal Response Plan, the Federal consequence management mechanisms and state and local Incident Command Systems will coordinate their activities in the event of a WMD incident.
The National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection and Counter-terrorism plays an important coordination role in our preparedness and response to events involving international terrorism and WMD. The National Coordinator does not have an operational role, rather, the Attorney General advises him with regard to national security information when a terrorist event occurs. The National Coordinator is responsible for coordinating the government's policies and programs concerning unconventional threats within the United States and to Americans abroad. These unconventional threats include attacks on our infrastructure, cyber systems, and government operations; terrorism; and the covert delivery of WMD. He is also responsible for coordinating the development of interagency procedures for deployment of specialized crisis assets.
[Note ... does unconventional threats include attacks on our infrastructure, cyber systems, and government operations incorporate Y2K? Not using those words, but it certainly qualifies].
The Department currently spends approximately $738.5 million for counter terrorism and anti-terrorism activities. In FY 2000, the Department is seeking an increase of 319 positions (60 agents and 66 attorneys) and $122.6 million for counter- terrorism/cybercrime programs to enhance our ability to deter, detect, investigate and prosecute violations committed by terrorists and other computer criminals. This reflects our concern that the interdependent systems that support every critical aspect of American life, including telecommunications, power delivery, transportation, delivery of government services and banking and commerce, are vulnerable to terrorist groups, organized criminals and, simply, lone hackers.
For the FBI, our request includes counterterrorism/ technology crime program increases totaling 207 positions(60 agents) and $45.7 million. ... This request also includes 108 positions (60 agents) and $11.3 million to allow the FBI to establish up to 12 field NIPCI Squads to investigate cyber intrusion cases, address infrastructure protection matters, support computer facilitated crime investigations, and provide equipment for 26 other field offices; 79 positions and $9.9 million to increase the number of Computer Analysis Response Team (CART) examiners who provide forensic support in cases involving computers, and provide CART members with appropriate equipment and training; 7 positions and $4.2 million for data network interception support and development; $7 million for counter-encryption equipment and services; 13 positions and $2.6 million for protocol analysis and processing staffing and equipment; and, finally, $1.7 million for NIPC operations.
... Using the authority provided by the exemption to Title 5 for certain positions that was approved by this Committee, we will augment our existing staff with specialized and technologically skilled personnel.
To increase the United States' ability to protect its businesses and its citizens, we are requesting 87 positions (55 attorneys) and $7.3 million for the U.S. Attorneys. The Administration is committed to protecting the nation's businesses and citizens from terrorists and other computer criminals. But, to meet this commitment, there must be additional attorneys and support staff for the investigation and prosecution of computer crime in its various manifestations. The U.S. Attorneys require additional staffing to handle significant cases of national interest which are due, in part, to terrorism, computer and other high tech crime generated by the steadily accelerating role of computers in businesses, the personal lives of our citizens, the exploding growth of on-line services and Internet use, the vulnerabilities of computer systems to attack and abuse, and the ability of terrorists and computer criminals to attack anonymously and from locations throughout the world.
For the Criminal Division, the Department requests an increase of 13 positions (9 attorneys) and $1.8 million for Counter terrorism/ cybercrime in the FY 2000 budget. This enhancement will permit the Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section of the Criminal Division to focus additional resources on 3 areas: 1) infrastructure protection; 2) international computer crime; and 3) intellectual property rights enforcement. These resources will permit the Criminal Division to investigate and prosecute attacks on the National Information Infrastructure, and to assist in assuring the integrity of systems that are integral to our telecommunications, power delivery, transportation, delivery of government services and banking and commerce. The global nature of the Internet, and the rapid expansion of international commerce, have been accompanied by a globalization of computer-related crime. Our need to address these international crime problems calls for enhanced resources to coordinate global solutions. Finally, the protection of intellectual property rights will expand significantly in the 21st century, as this country's intellectual capacity becomes, perhaps, our greatest resource ...
The Department also seeks $27 million for the Counterterrorism Fund. These resources will be used to reimburse departments and agencies of the Federal government for costs incurred in support of countering, investigating, or prosecuting domestic and/or international terrorism; finance reward payments in connection with such activities; restore operational capacities of offices destroyed or damaged by domestic or international terrorist acts; ensure continuance of essential government functions during an emergency; protect the Nation's critical infrastructure; provide for costs associated with the NDPO; and provide for costs associated with design of the Federal Intrusion Detection Network.
... Most of today's computer software and network systems cannot function on outdated hardware and legacy systems, which unfortunately is what many of our investigators and attorneys are still using.
[snip -- to end]
-- Diane J. Squire (firstname.lastname@example.org), April 19, 1999.
end bold. All very helpful stuff... not sure it answers my boss' question or not.
-- Scott Johnson (email@example.com), April 20, 1999.
Just put scads of end-bold tags. One of 'em's bound to work.
-- Lisa (firstname.lastname@example.org), April 20, 1999.
A few phone calls might answer the boss's questions. Remember, that "old technology" way of asking questions? (Kidding).
At least you may have some useful background here, to formulate the best ones. Try the FBI, head-on.
We'd love to know what you find out!
-- Diane J. Squire (email@example.com), April 20, 1999.